1. What is the overall function of the kidneys?
They control the water to electrolyte balance and remove nitrogenous waste. Regulate the inner environment of the body.
2. What are the functional units of the kidney?
3. What is the bulk of the energy used for by the kidney?
Active Transport of sodium and co-transport of electrolytes and other substances.
4. Describe juxtomedullary nephrons.
They penetrate the entire length of the medulla.
5. List what is absorbed in the proximal tubule.
Electrolytes, amino acids, water, and glucose
6. The anti-diuretic hormone (ADH) acts on what structure(s) in the kidney? Distal and collecting tubules
7. What usually causes kidney damage resulting from urinary tract obstruction? Back pain/pressure and ischemia
8. What is the most common type of kidney stone in people with urinary tract infections? Magnesium ammonium phosphate
9. Why is Aspirin not recommended for pain relief in people with gouty arthritis? It decreases the secretion on uric acid into the renal tubules.
10. How is cranberry or blueberry juice thought to control and prevent UTIs? It reduces the bacterial adhesion epithelial of the urinary tract
11. Describe glomerulonephritis.
Inflammation involving the glomerular structures. Can lead to kidney failure. Some include bacterial infections and immune diseases.
12. What does glomerulonephritis result from?
An immune response
13. Describe acute proliferative glomerulonephritis.
It is an Increase in cellular components of the glomerulus, along with edema, oliguria, proteinuria and hematuria
14. What are the endocrine functions of the kidney?
They are the activation of Vitamin D and production of erythropoietin.
15. What is a substance normally found in urine that closely reflects the glomerular filtration rate? Creatinine (comes from a Greek word that means Flesh)
16. Describe the Urine specific gravity test.
It assesses the ability of the kidneys to concentrate urine. Normal values 1.01 to 1.02
17. What does Aldosterone increase the reabsorption of and what does anti-diuretic hormone (ADH) increase the reabsorption of? Aldosterone increases absorption of NA. ADH increases absorption of H2O
18. What type of renal response is given for people who eat high-protein meals or have high glucose levels in their blood? It increases in renal blood flow and GFR (Glomerular Filtration Rate)
19. What is the most common complication with urinary tract obstruction? Infections. Acute Distytus or Bladder Infection are most common.
20. What is the most common inherited disease that affects the kidneys? Polycystic kidney disease
21. What is a characteristic sign of polycystic kidney disease? Enlarged Kidneys
22. What blood test is used to detect the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and renal function? Creatinine in the blood.
23. What are the effects of kidney agenesis or hypoplasia if it affects one kidney in the body? A few to none at all.
24. Describe the effects of cystic disease on the kidney.
Tubular dilation: caused by weakened tubule structures
Tubular obstructions (that increase intro-tubular pressure) in the basement membrane of the renal tubules.
25. What prevention measure can be used to prevent all types of kidney stones? To increase your fluid intake.
26. Which population is least susceptible to urinary tract infections? Adolescent boys
27. What is the most common cause of nosocomial urinary tract infections? Nosocomial, this is hospital originated
28. What are the symptoms of lower urinary tract infections (UTIs)? Enuresis, Dysuria, Subrupubic discomfort, frequency
29. Edema that develops in people with glomerulonephritis and nephrotic syndrome indicate what? The loss of Plasma...