In psychology, memory is an organism's ability to store, retain, and recall information and experiences. Traditional studies of memory began in the fields of philosophy, including techniques of artificially enhancing memory. During the late nineteenth and early twentieth century, scientists have put memory within the example of cognitive psychology. In recent decades, it has become one of the principal pillars of a branch of science called cognitive neuroscience, an interdisciplinary link between cognitive psychology and neuroscience. Processes
From information processing perspective there are three main stages and 3 types of memories in the formation and retrieval of memory: Encoding or registration (receiving, processing and combining of received information) Storage (creation of a permanent record of the encoded information) Retrieval, recall or recollection (calling back the stored information in response to some cue for use in a process or activity). A. Sensory memory
* The ability to look at an item, and remember what it looked like with just a second of observation, or memorization, is an example of sensory memory. * The capacity of sensory memory was approximately 12 items, but that it degraded very quickly (within a few hundred milliseconds). * This type of memory cannot be delayed via rehearsal.
* Iconic memory is a type of sensory memory that briefly stores an image which has been perceived for a small duration. * Echoic memory is another type of sensory memory that briefly stores sounds which has been perceived for a small duration.
B. Short-term memory
* This memory allows recall for a period of several seconds to a minute without rehearsal. * Its capacity is also very limited.
* Memory capacity can be increased through a process called chunking. For example, in recalling a ten-digit telephone number. * Short-term memory is believed to rely mostly on an acoustic code for storing...