Psychology Hl Internal Assessment

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Psychology Internal Assessment|
An experiment on instruction of free recall and serial recall on memory.| Psychology Higher Level|
Name: Vanessa BarthovaCandidate Number: 001457-004School: QSI International School of BratislavaDate of Submission: February 25th, 2013Word Count: 1,997| |

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Index

ABSTRACT................................................................................................................ 2 INTRODUCTION .......................................................................................................3 METHOD...................................................................................................................4 DESIGN………………………………………………………………………………………………….....4 PARTICIPANTS…………………………………………………………………………………….......5 MATERIALS………………………………………………………………………………………….…….5 PROCEDURE……………………………………………………………………………………….……..5 RESULTS................................................................................................................... 6 DISCUSSION..............................................................................................................9 REFERENCES ............................................................................................................ 11 APPENDICES ............................................................................................................ 12

Abstract

The aim of this experiment was to investigate whether recall of words can be influenced by instructed form of free recall versus serial recall. Since recall for any given item depends upon the position of that item in the series, it was investigated if the type of recall has influence on the primacy and recency effects. The hypothesis predicted that participants in the free recall condition will show a classic position curve with the recency effect taking place almost equally to the primacy effect, then when compared to participants in the serial anticipation condition where the primacy effect will be dominant. This was based on previous research by Deese (1957), which demonstrated that it is possible to alter the form of the serial position curve by instructions as to the method of recall. The DV was number of words recalled and the IV was the fact whether free recall or serial-order recall was instructed. The repeated measures design was chosen. An opportunity sample of 36 participants (N=36) participated. 3 lists of 20 common English words were read out to participants in the control group, all of the lists were instructed for free recall before and after reading of the list. 3 lists of 20 common English words were read out to participants in the experimental group. In the first list free recall was called on for both before the reading of the list and after. In the second list, free recall was called on before the reading, and serial recall was instructed after the hearing of the list. In the third list, serial recall was called on for both before the reading of the list and after The T-test showed the results of the list were significant at a 5% level of significance, so the research hypothesis that type of instruction affects recall was accepted. Word count: 304

Introduction

Cognitive psychology deals with mental processes such as memory. Memory has been studied by psychologists since Atkinson and Shiffrin proposed theory of the multistore model of memory (MSM), which breaks-up memory into different categories. Information is received by sensory stores, and some is passed to short-term memory stores (STS), which can then be passed to long-term memory stores (LTS). Attention is the control process responsible for transfer of information from sensory store to STS. This is supported by many studies that involve serial position effect, showing that when participants are presented with lists of words, they remember first few and last few words and are more likely to forget those in middle. A study, conducted by Murdock (1962) investigates the...
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