Memory- the persistence of learning over time through the storage and retrieval of information.
importance- research on a memories extremes has helped us understand how memory works.
Working Memory- a newer understanding of short-term memory that focuses on conscious, active processing of incoming auditory and visual-spatial information, and of information retrieved from long-term memory.
importance- better understanding of Atkinson and Shiffrin’s second stage, concentrates on the active processing of information in this intermediate stage.
Parallel Processing- the processing of many aspects of a problem simultaneously.
importance- the brain’s natural mode of information processing for many functions; contrasts with the step-by-step processing of most computers and of conscious problem solving.
Automatic Processing- unconscious encoding of incidental information, of well-learned information, such as word meanings.
importance- without conscious effort you automatically process information about space, time, frequency, and well-learned information.
Effortful Processing- encoding that requires attention and conscious effort.
importance- often produces durable and accessible memories.
Rehearsal- the conscious repetition of information, either to maintain it in consciousness or to encode it for storage.
importance- creates knowledge or learned information.
Spacing Effect- the tendency for distributed study or practice.
importance- yields better long-term retention than is achieved through massed study or practice.
Serial Position Effect- our tendency to recall best the first and last items in a list.
importance- further illustrates the benefits of rehearsal.
Mnemonics- memory aids, especially those techniques that use vivd and organizational devices.
importance- organizes information into a simpler format.
Chunking- organizing items into familiar, manageable units.
importance- often occurs automatically
Flashbulb Memory- a clear memory of an emotionally significant moment or event.
importance- a clear capture of a memory made by the brain.
Amnesia- the loss of memory.
importance- unable to form new memories.
Implicit Memory- retention independence or conscious recollection. (also called non declarative or procedural memory)
importance- motor skills, riding a bike, or playing an instrument.
Explicit Memory- memories of facts and experiences that one can consciously know and “declare”.
importance- the ability to declare what you know.
Recall- a measure of memory in which the person must retrieve information learned earlier, as on a fill-in-the-blank test.
importance- the ability to retrieve information not in the conscious awareness.
Recognition- a measure of memory in which the person need only identify items previously learned, as on a multiple choice test.
importance- more quickly relearning information.
Priming- the activation, often unconsciously, of particular associations in memory.
importance- the “wakening of associations”
Déjà vu- that eerie sense that “ive experienced this before,”
importance- cues from the current situation may subconsciously trigger retrieval of an earlier experience.
Mood Congruent Memory- the tendency to recall experiences that are consistent with ones current good or bad mood.
importance- our mood states provide an example of memory’s state dependence.
Misinformation Effect- incorporating misleading information into ones’s memory of an event.
importance- after exposure to subtle misinformation, many people misremember.
Source Amnesia- attributing to the wrong source an event we have experienced, heard about, read about, or imagined.
importance- source amnesia, along with the misinformation effect, is at the heart of many false memories. ￼
Retrograde Amnesia- loss of memory for events immediately preceding a trauma.