unconditioned stimulus (US) is one that unconditionally, naturally, and automatically triggers a response. For example, when you smell one of your favorite foods, you may immediately feel very hungry. In this example, the smell of the food is the unconditioned stimulus. Some more examples of the unconditioned stimulus include:
* A feather tickling your nose causes you to sneeze. The feather tickling your nose is the unconditioned stimulus. * Pollen from grass and flowers causes you to sneeze. The pollen from the grass and flowers is the unconditioned stimulus.
In classical conditioning, the unconditioned response is the unlearned response that occurs naturally in response to the unconditioned stimulus. For example, if the smell of food is the unconditioned stimulus, the feeling of hunger in response to the smell of food is the unconditioned response. * Gasping in pain after being stung by a bee.
* Jerking your hand back after touching a hot plate on the oven. * Jumping at the sound of a loud noise.
What Is a Conditioned Stimulus?
In classical conditioning, the conditioned stimulus is previously neutral stimulus that, after becoming associated with theunconditioned stimulus, eventually comes to trigger a conditioned response.
For example, suppose that the smell of food is an unconditioned stimulus and a feeling of hunger is the unconditioned response. Now, imagine that when you smelled your favorite food, you also heard the sound of a whistle. While the whistle is unrelated to the smell of the food, if the sound of the whistle was paired multiple times with the smell, the sound would eventually trigger the conditioned response. In this case, the sound of the whistle is the conditioned stimulus. The example above is very similar to the original experiment performed by Russian physiologist Ivan Pavlov. The dogs in his experiment would salivate in response to food, but after repeatedly pairing the presentation of food with the sound of a bell, the dogs would begin to salivate to the sound alone. In this example, the sound of the bell was the conditioned stimulus. What Is a Conditioned Response?
In classical conditioning, the conditioned response is the learned response to the previously neutral stimulus. For example, let's suppose that the smell of food is an unconditioned stimulus, a feeling of hunger in response the the smell is a unconditioned response, and a the sound of a whistle is the conditioned stimulus. The conditioned response would be feeling hungry when you heard the sound of the whistle. While studying classical conditioning, you might find it helpful to remember that the conditioned response is the learned reflexive response. Some examples of conditioned responses include:
* Many phobias begin after a person has had a negative experience with the fear object. For example, after witnessing a terrible car accident, a person might develop a fear of driving. This is a conditioned response. * The sound of a can opener or bag being opened can trigger excitement in pet. If your pet is accustomed to being fed after hearing the sound of a can or bag being opened, he or she might become very excited whenever they hear that sound. This behavior is a conditioned response. * Many children receive regular immunizations, and a child may cry as a result of these injections. In some instances, a child might come to associate a doctor's white jacket with this painful experience. Eventually, the child might begin to cry whenever they see anyone where a white jacket. This crying behavior is a conditioned response.
What Is Reinforcement?
Reinforcement is a term used in operant conditioning to refer to anything that increases the likelihood that a response will occur. Note that reinforcement is defined by the effect that it has on behavior - it increases or strengthens the behavior. For example, reinforcement might involve presenting praise...