AP Psychology Chapter Outlines: Study Notes

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AP Psych
Learning Guided Reading-1

1. Learning is the long lasting changing due to experience. Example: In school, students absorb knowledge from different kinds of subjects.

2. Associative learning is learning to associate one stimulus with another.

3 Example: Lucy opened her car door and got attacked by a swarm of bees that got in through an open window. Lucy developed a phobia of cars and now takes the bus to work. During this situation, US is bees’attack, UR is fear CS is cars, CR is fear.

4. In the experiment, Pavlov presented food, and the dog salivated. Then, he began to ring the bell before he presented the food, at first, the dog didn’t have response. Then, after he repeated this action again and again, then once the bell rang, the dog started salivated. Food was the unconditioned stimulus, the stimulus that naturally evoked salivation. Salivation was the unconditioned response, which is a response that occurs naturally. The bell was the conditioned stimulus, the stimulus that the dogs learned to associate with food. The conditioned response to the bell was salivation.

5. Behaviorism implies that the learner responds to environmental stimuli without his/her mental state being a factor in the learner’s behavior. Individuals learn to behave through conditioning. Then John Watson conduct an experiment to prove classical conditioning called the Little Albert experiment. He found a baby afraid of lond sounds, but not afraid of rats at first. Then he associated these two things together and presented to the baby. He successfully conditioned a child to be afraid of rats in the end.

6. Acquisition is the initial learning stage in classical conditioning in which an association between a neutral stimulus and an unconditioned stimulus takes place.

7. Extinction is when the US (food) does not follow the CS (tone), CR (salivation) begins to decrease and eventually causes extinction, the diminishing of a conditioned...
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