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* Psychology 111 Study Guide for Exam 2

How to use this study guide
Complete the study guide and attached charts.
Read the chapter according to the course schedule.
Read chapter summary and review sections.
Assignments
to be submitted as scheduled in the course outline.
Perspectives for this exam
Behavioral psychology
Cognitive psychology
Topics for this exam
Learning
Behavioral learning
Cognitive learning
Social Cognitive or Observational Learning
The big picture of what we are doing
Read chapters 5-7
Complete terms, people, charts
What is learning? Do behavioral psychologists view it the same as cognitive psychologists? What is behavioral psychology?
What is classical conditioning?
What is operant conditioning?
How do classical and operant conditioning differ?
What is cognitive psychology?
What types of memory do we have?
How do we remember things? How can we improve our memory?
Why do we forget things?
How does the mind solve problems and develop creativity?
How does language develop?
Does language involve more than communication?
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Ch 5: Learning
Overview
Definitions
Learning:
Conditioning
Behavioral Psychology
Cognitive Psychology
Types of Behavioral Psychology
Classical Conditioning
Instrumental Conditioning
Operant Conditioning
Ch 5: Classical Conditioning
Overview
Definitions
Behavioral psychology
Classical conditioning
Theorists
Ivan Pavlov
John Watson
John Garcia
Robert Koelling
Learning Process
Elements
stimulus-response
reflex
Association
Acquisition
Terms
Neutral stimulus
Unconditioned stimulus
Conditioned stimulus
Unconditioned response
Conditioned response
Generalization
Discrimination
Extinction
Spontaneous recovery
Ch 5: Operant Conditioning
Instrumental Conditioning
Definitions
Behavioral psychology
Instrumental Conditioning
Theorist
Edward Thorndike
Terms
law of effect
consequences
Operant Conditioning
Definitions
Behavioral psychology
Operant conditioning
Theorist
B.F. Skinner
Learning Process
Elements
target behavior
Shaping
Reinforcement
Reinforcer
Primary reinforcer
Secondary reinforcer
Punishment
Terms
Positive punishment
Negative punishment
Positive reinforcement
Negative reinforcement
Behavioral modification
superstitious behavior
learned helplessness
aversive stimulus
escape learning
avoidance learning
Cognitive Learning
Overview
Definitions
Cognitive psychology
Cognitive learning
Theorists
Edward Tolman
Albert Bandura
Learning Process
Elements
latent learning
cognitive map
rote learning
observational learning/ modeling
insight
Ch 6: Memory
Overview
Definitions
Memory
Forgetting
Theorist
Hermann Ebbinghaus
Types of memory
Sensory memory
Iconic memory
echoic memory
Short-term memory
attending
Rehearsing
Encoding
Storing
Long-term memory
Retrieving
Recall
Recognition
Issues
Terms
Primacy effect
Recency effect
Interference
consolidation
repression
overlearning
chunking
Memory Distinctions
Declarative memory
Procedural memory
source amnesia
Ch 7: Cognition, Language & Creativity
Cognitive Processes
Terms
Cognition
symbols
mental image
cognitive map
Reasoning and Concepts
inductive reasoning
deductive reasoning
Concept
Definition theory
Prototype theory
Problem-solving and decision-making
Trial and error
algorithm
Heuristics
insight
intuition
mental set
fixations

Creative thinking
convergent thinking
divergent thinking
Intelligence
Intelligence
triarchic theory of intelligence
Gardner’s multiple intelligence
Emotional intelligence
Language
Definition
language
Framing
linguistic relativity hypothesis

Comprehensive Materials for the Exam
Discovering Psychology
Psychology
goals
experimental method
placebo
Perspectives
Biological
Gestalt
Behavioral
Cognitive
Terms
Biology & Behavior
Neuron
synaptic transmission
Sensation
Perception...
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