(University of the City of Manila)
Gen. Luna St. Intramuros, Manila
Graduate School of Arts, Sciences and Education
Course Code and Title:Foundation of Education
Professor:Dr. Ofelia D. Lazarte
Date:March 8, 2008
Teaching and learning are complex processes that bring people together. While teaching consist of behaviors are practiced by the teacher to facilitate and development of the individual, learning implies a relatively permanent change in behavior potentiality resulting from maturation and experience.
Teaching and learning are both psychological processes. They are the main concerns of the teacher since learning is the ultimate purpose of teaching. The teacher who has a knowledge of the theories and principles of human development specifically intellectual development can design learning activities appropriate learner and will promote effective learning.
The educative process has three components namely, the learner who is the center of the educative process in a school, the teachers who provides needed learning opportunities ands guide learners, and the learning process undertaken to achieve the desired outcomes.
There are two general factors that affect the human development: heredity and environment. Heredity and environment complement and supplement each other in every phase of growth and development.
In the life span of human beings, there are stages of development based on the chronological age of individuals. These are prenatal period, infancy or babyhood, early childhood, late childhood, adolescence, early adulthood, middle age and old age. Corresponding to each stage are certain characteristics and social expectations termed developmental tasks.
Several theories of development were formulated by psychologists to explain behavioral changes at various stages of development. The five theories of development are Piaget's theory of...