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Late Adulthood and End of Life Paper
Tramaine Layne
PSY 375
July 23, 2012
Moriel McDuffy
Late Adulthood and End of Life Paper
Berger (2008) state that late adulthood, which begins at age 65, is the final stage of the life span development process that culminates through the death of an individual. During the course of the twentieth century the notion of late adulthood changed significantly (Kowalski & Westen, 2009). The average person’s life expectancy increased probably by 30 years. This changed the proportion of North Americans over 65 years from 1900s one in 30 to a projection by the year 2040 that it will be one in five. This drastically changed the perceptions of late adulthood (Kowalski & Westen, 2009). For example, persons viewed adults in their late sixties a mere three decades prior as “old” (Kowalski & Westen, 2009). On the contrary, Kowalski and Westen (2009) indicates that in the present societies it is not surprising to see that persons 70 and older still active. In addition, during this phase, research suggests that most persons adjust to the difficulties involved in aging, such as the decline in cognitive functions, changing of social roles, and inevitably death plausibly (Guest, 2011). The changes in the statistics during late adulthood stage of the life span development process stems from factors, such as the promoting of health and wellness into late adulthood to mitigate the negative effects of aging. Analyzing ageism and stereotypes types associated with late adulthood. The exploration of the different views of death and dying at different the points in human development. Further, through examinations of various cultures’ attitudes toward death and dying. How individuals can promote health and wellness into late adulthood and mitigate the negative effects of aging. The resounding view is that throughout the course of the life span development healthy habits are necessary to promote health, wellness, and to mitigate the negative effects during each of the stages. Therefore, like the other stages, late adulthood has health habits specific to the stage, which can mitigate the negative effects of aging. Further, like the other stages the establishment and maintenance of healthy habits relies upon the choice of the individual and his or her social circumstance (Berger, 2008). Some of the health habits that relate to late adulthood phase of the life span development process are nutrition, exercise, and drug use. Nutrition

During the late adulthood phase of life span development in attempts to promote health and wellness and mitigate the effects of aging proper nutrition is essential. As the human body ages it ability effectively to digest foods and absorb their nutrients declines. For example, for one to maintain a consistent weight during this stage his or her diet has to comprise of a smaller quantity of daily calories as opposed to earlier in his or her life. They should consume foods such as fruits, vegetables, cereals, and grains (Berger, 2008). However, they should ensure that they are not under eating, which can stem from factors such as depression, economic status, dental issues, or medical problems.

In late adulthood many of the individuals various types of medications for health issues that they may develop during the course of time. These medications can affect the absorption of the nutrients from foods. For example, the daily use of aspirin by individuals with heart related issues can increase their need for vitamin C (Berger, 2008). Hence, the individuals would have to ensure that they carefully monitor their medications and diet so as to maintain a health diet and body. Exercise

Later in one’s life, exercise as nutrition becomes more important than it was earlier in life. During this stage the mere task of walking can pose a problem for some individuals. The level of mobility for some can become limited because their muscles become rigid affecting their range of...
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