ARPN Journal of Agricultural and Biological Science
©2006-2011 Asian Research Publishing Network (ARPN). All rights reserved.
PROMISING ANTIFUNGAL EFFECT OF SOME FOLKLORIC MEDICINAL PLANTS COLLECTED FROM EL- HAMMAM HABITAT, EGYPT AGAINST DANGEROUS PATHOGENIC AND TOXINOGENIC FUNGI Department of Bioprocess Development, Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Research Institute, Mubarak City for Scientific Research and Applied Technology, Research Zone, Borg Al-Arab, Alexandria, Egypt 2 Department of Botany, Faculty of Science, Alexandria University, Moharram Bey, Alexandria, Egypt 3 Department of Protein Research, Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Research Institute, Mubarak City for Scientific Research and Applied Technology, Research Zone, Borg Al-Arab, Alexandria, Egypt E-Mail: firstname.lastname@example.org 1
Sawsan Abd-Ellatif1, Salwa M. Abdel Rahman2 and Sahar F. Deraz3
ABSTRACT Increasing evidence of fungicide-resistant toxinogenic and pathogenic fungal species is obvious. Looking for new possibilities of antifungal treatment or sources of antifungal substances is a major problem. Some medicinal plants exert strong antifungal properties and could be conveniently used as a promising alternative source for presently problematic antifungal treatment in many areas with respect to their natural origin. In this study, antifungal activities of Mesembryanthemum crystallinum (Aizoaceae); Blackiella aellen, Arthrocnemon glaucum and Atriplex halimus (Chenopodiaceae), Thymelaea hirsute (Thymelaeaceae), Carduus g e t u l u s , A t r a c t y l i s carduus a n d E c h i n o p s spinosissimus (Compositae), Nicotiana glauca (Solanaceae), Alhagi maurorum (Fabaceae) species were investigated. The fungal effects of these plants were tested by agar tube dilution method using Fusarium solani, Fusarium oxysporum, Aspergillus flavus, Alternaria alternate, Rhizoctnia solani, Pythium ultimum, Bipolaris oryzae, Rhizopus, Chetomium and Mucor. For 10 plant species, the possibility of using them as natural fungicides was indicated. The extracts showed significant activity against most target fungal species. The most sensitive target funguses were the toxinogenic and human pathogenic species Fusarium solani and Bipolaris oryzae plant methanol and hexane extracts, respectively. The overall results provide promising base line information for the potential use of the crude extracts of tested plants in the treatment of fungal infections. An a t t e m p t has been made to highlight the promising plant species for further investigation as leads for new drug development. Keywords: medicinal plants, antifungal activity, fungi, biological control, hexane extracts, methanol extracts, nutraceuticals.
INTRODUCTION Human and animal fungal infections pose serious medical and veterinary issues. In the past few decades, a worldwide increase in the incidence of fungal infections has been observed as well as a rise in the resistance of some species of fungus to different fungicidal used in medicinal practice. Fungal infection of plants represents significant losses of agricultural products. Up to now, more than 100,000 fungal species are considered as natural contaminants of agricultural and food products (Kacaniova, 2003; Sati and Joshi, 2011). Although there are several natural and synthetic products available to ameliorate fungal infections, the last two decades have witnessed a dramatic rise in the incidence of life threatening systemic fungal infections. There is currently an increase in the numbers of immune compromised individuals due to advances in medical technology and a pan epidemic of HIV infections. With the rise in-at risk patients, the number of invasive fungal infections has dramatically increased in both developed and developing countries (Meena et al., 2009). The challenge has been to develop effective strategies for the treatment of candidiasis and other fungal...