Sapna Sharma1, Jyotsna Singh1 Archana Kumari1, Chetna Mishra1, Poonam Kakkar1*
Herbal Research Section, Indian Institute of Toxicology Research, P.O. Box No. 80, Lucknow, India
Dr (Mrs) P. Kakkar
Head, Herbal Research
Industrial Toxicology Research Centre
Post Box No.80, M.G. Marg,
Lucknow-226 001, India
Tel: (+91)-0522-2213786, 2627586*269
Zingiber officinale Rosc. rhizome, collected from 9 locations of India was explored for any variations in their chemical constituents, antimicrobial and antioxidant potential. RAPD was also performed to observe the relatedness among samples. Maximum camphene, geraniol (3.96, 0.6mg/kg), and total phenolics (65.08 GAE mg/kg) were observed in Madurai sample. Samples had varied antioxidant potential as accessed by SOD mimetic activity, lipid peroxidation inhibition & ABTS•+ scavenging assay. Madurai sample had highest superoxide and ABTS•+ scavenging potential, wheras maximum LPO inhibition was observed in Pune. Extracts showed antimicrobial activities against two gram +ve (B. cereus, S. auerus) aaaaand five gram –ve bacteria (S typhi, S. flexneri, S. sonnei, P. aurginosa and E. coli). Madurai sample had maximum antimicrobial activity against these microorganisms. RAPD profile showed a total 1020 bands scoring 250 RAPD marker bands with 0.31-0.86 similarity. Madurai and Ottapalam samples formed entirely different cluster in dendogram. Variation observed in biological activity may be useful for selecting raw material for therapeutic purposes.
Keywords Ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.), Antioxidant activity, Antimicrobial activity, PCR-RAPD, Genetic diversity.
Ginger (Zingiber officinale) belonging to the family Zingiberaceae is cultivated in various parts of the world, especially in India, China and Mexico. It is used since time immemorial as a dietary component and food spice in daily life. Ayurvedic, Chinese and other traditional medicine systems have recorded ginger as an important medicinal plant. Ginger has been reported to exert antioxidant, antiulcer, antiemetic, anti-inflammatory, antitumour, carminative, diaphoretic, digestive, expectorant, as well as gastro protective activities (Jaing et a1, 2007; Shylaja and Siddaraja, 2007). Therapeutic effects of ginger are mentioned in Ayurveda in neurological disorders and have been successfully used against migrain headache (Mustafa and Shrivastava, 1990). A study on ginger’s reputation as stomachic showed that acetone and methanol extracts of ginger strongly inhibit gastric alteration (Yamahara et al, 1988). In addition to above it protects from radiation-induced lethality (Jagetia et al, 2003), and DNA damage (Huang et al, 2003). Other scientific studies show that gingerol, one of the primary pungent constituent of ginger helps in protection against liver toxicity by increasing bile secretion. Plants have been a valuable source of natural products for maintaining human health, especially in the last decade, with more intensive studies devoted to natural therapies. At the same time reactive oxygen species have been implicated in a number of diseases such as malaria, acquire immunodeficiency syndrome, heart disease, arteriosclerosis, diabetes, cancer etc. (Calabrese et al, 2006; Tanizawa et al, 1992). Unregulated production of ROS is implicated to be the prime reason for oxidative damage to proteins, lipids and DNA (Sheu et al, 2006). The use of plant extracts and phytochemicals, with known antioxidant and antimicrobial property can be of great significance in finding potential therapeutic agents. The present study was taken up with the aim to identify Polymorphic RAPD markers to distinguish nine ginger rhizome samples collected from different ecological zones of India, and to...