1.1) INDUSTRIAL PROFILE
The Indian Equity Market is more popularly known as the Indian Stock Market. The Indian equity market has become the third biggest after China and Hong Kong in the Asian region. According to the latest report by ADB, it has a market capitalization of nearly $600 billion. As of March 2009, the market capitalization was around $598.3 billion (Rs 30.13 lakh crore) which is one-tenth of the combined valuation of the Asia region. The market was slow since early 2007 and continued till the first quarter of 2009.
A stock exchange has been defined by the Securities Contract (Regulation) Act, 1956 as an organization, association or body of individuals established for regulating, and controlling of securities.
The Indian equity market depends on three factors –
• Funding into equity from all over the world
• Corporate houses performance
The stock market in India does business with two types of fund namely private equity fund and venture capital fund. It also deals in transactions which are based on the two major indices - Bombay Stock Exchange (BSE) and National Stock Exchange of India Ltd. (NSE).The market also includes the debt market which is controlled by wholesale dealers, primary dealers and banks.
The equity market is also affected through trade integration policy. The country has advanced both in foreign institutional investment (FII) and trade integration since 1995.
History of Indian Equity Market
The history of the Indian equity market goes back to the 18th century when securities of the East India Company were traded. Till the end of the 19th century, the trading of securities was unorganized and the main trading centers were Calcutta (now Kolkata) and Bombay (now Mumbai).
Trade activities prospered with an increase in share price in India with Bombay becoming the main source of cotton supply during the American Civil War (1860-61). In 1865, there was drop in share prices. The stockbroker association established the Native Shares and Stock Brokers Association in 1875 to organize their activities. In 1927, the BSE recognized this association, under the Bombay Securities Contracts Control Act, 1925.
The Indian Equity Market was not well organized or developed before independence. After independence, new issues were supervised. The timing, floatation costs, pricing, interest rates were strictly controlled by the Controller of Capital Issue (CII). For four and half decades, companies were demoralized and not motivated from going public due to the rigid rules of the Government.
In the 1950s, there was uncontrollable speculation and the market was known as 'Satta Bazaar'. Speculators aimed at companies like Tata Steel, Kohinoor Mills, Century Textiles, Bombay Dyeing and National Rayon. The Securities Contracts (Regulation) Act, 1956 was enacted by the Government of India. Financial institutions and state financial corporation were developed through an established network.
In the 60s, the market was bearish due to massive wars and drought. Forward trading transactions and 'Contracts for Clearing' or 'badla' were banned by the Government. With financial institutions such as LIC, GIC, some revival in the markets could be seen. Then in 1964, UTI, the first mutual fund of India was formed. In the 70's, the trading of 'badla' resumed in a different form of 'hand delivery contract'. But the Government of India passed the Dividend Restriction Ordinance on 6th July, 1974. According to the ordinance, the dividend was fixed to 12% of Face Value or 1/3 rd of the profit under Section 369 of The Companies Act, 1956 whichever is lower.
This resulted in a drop by 20% in market capitalization at BSE (Bombay Stock Exchange) overnight. The stock market was closed for nearly a fortnight. Numerous multinational companies were pulled out of India as they had to dissolve their majority stocks in India ventures for the Indian public under FERA, 1973.