A capital market is a market for securities (debt or equity), where business enterprises (companies) and governments can raise long-term funds. It is defined as a market in which money is provided for periods longer than a year, as the raising of short-term funds takes place on other markets (e.g., the money market). The capital market includes the stock market (equity securities) and the bond market (debt). Money markets and capital markets are parts of financial markets. Financial regulators, such as the UK's Financial Services Authority (FSA) or the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), oversee the capital markets in their designated jurisdictions to ensure that investors are protected against fraud, among other duties. Capital markets may be classified as primary markets and secondary markets. In primary markets, new stock or bond issues are sold to investors via a mechanism known as underwriting. In the secondary markets, existing securities are sold and bought among investors or traders, usually on a securities exchange, over-the-counter, or elsewhere. The primary market is the channel for creation of new securities. These securities are issued by public limited companies or by government agencies’ In the primary market, the resources are mobilized either through the public issue or through private placement route. It is a public issue if anybody and everybody can subscribe for it, whereas if the issue is made available to a selected group of persons it is termed as private placement. There are two major types of issuers of securities, the corporate entities who issue mainly debt and equity instruments and the Government (Central as well as State) who issue debt securities. These new securities issued in the primary market are traded in the secondary market. The secondary market enables participants who hold securities to adjust their holdings in response to changes in their assessment of risks and returns. Industry raises finance from the Indian capital market with the help of a number of instruments. Corporate have a choice of : - (1) Equity finance, and
(2) Debt finance.
Experience in the different countries has varied. Substituting equity finance for debt finance makes domestic firms less vulnerable to fluctuations in earnings or increases in interest rates. During the last decade, more than a third of the increase in net assets of large firms in Chile, South Korea, Malaysia, Mexico, Taiwan and Thailand has been secured through equity issuance. This pattern contrasts sharply with that of the industrial countries, in which equity financing during the same period has accounted for less than 5 percent of the growth in net assets. The recent massive structural reforms on the economic and industry front in the form of de-licensing rupee convertibility, tapping of foreign funds, allowing foreign investors to come to India, have resulted, on one hand, in the quantum leap in activities/volume in the Indian capital market, and on the other hand and more importantly, that the Indian capital market has undergone a metamorphosis in terms of institutions, instruments, etc. The capital market in India is rightly termed as an emerging and promising capital market. The buoyancy in the capital market has appeared as a result of increasing industrialization, growing awareness globalization of the capital market, etc. Several financial institutions, financial instruments and financial services have emerged as a result of economic liberalization policy of the Government of India. Future of the capital market
In the liberalized economic environment, the capital market is all set to play a highly critical role in the process of economic development. The Indian capital market has to arrange funds to meet the financial needs of both domestic and foreign resources. What is more critical is that the changed environment is characterized by cutthroat competition....