Capital Market Essay

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CAPITAL MARKEt

A capital market is a market for securities (debt or equity), where business enterprises (companies) and governments can raise long-term funds. It is defined as a market in which money is provided for periods longer than a year. The capital market includes the stock market (equity securities) and the bond market (debt). Money markets and capital markets are parts of financial markets. Financial regulators, such as the UK's Financial Services Authority (FSA) or the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), oversee the capital markets in their designated jurisdictions to ensure that investors are protected against fraud, among other duties.

Capital markets may be classified as primary markets and secondary markets. In primary markets, new stock or bond issues are sold to investors via a mechanism known as underwriting. In the secondary markets, existing securities are sold and bought among investors or traders, usually on a securities exchange, over-the-counter, or elsewhere.

Capital Market is one of the significant aspect of every financial market. Hence it is necessary to study its correct meaning. Broadly speaking the capital market is a market for financial assets which have a long or indefinite maturity. Unlike money market instruments the capital market intruments become mature for the period above one year. It is an institutional arrangement to borrow and lend money for a longer period of time. It consists of financial institutions like IDBI, ICICI, UTI, LIC, etc. These institutions play the role of lenders in the capital market. Business units and corporate are the borrowers in the capital market. Capital market involves various instruments which can be used for financial transactions. Capital market provides long term debt and equity finance for the government and the corporate sector.

Structure of Indian Capital Market with Diagram

Broadly speaking the capital market is classified in to two categories. They are the Primary market (New Issues Market) and the Secondary market (Old (Existing) Issues Market). This classification is done on the basis of the nature of the instrument brought in the market. However on the basis of the types of institutions involved in capital market, it can be classified into various categories such as the Government Securities market or Gilt-edged market, Industrial Securities market, Development Financial Institutions (DFIs) and Financial intermediaries. All of these components have specific features to mention. The structure of the Indian capital market has its distinct features. These different segments of the capital market help to develop the institution of capital market in many dimensions.  The following chart will help us in understanding the organizational structure of the Indian Capital market.

CHART PASTE KERNA

Government Securities Market : This is also known as the Gilt-edged market. This refers to the market for government and semi-government securities backed by the Reserve Bank of India (RBI).

Industrial Securities Market : This is a market for industrial securities i.e. market for shares and debentures of the existing and new corporate firms. Buying and selling of such instruments take place in this market. This market is further classified into two types such as the New Issues Market (Primary) and the Old (Existing) Issues Market (secondary). In primary market fresh capital is raised by companies by issuing new shares, bonds, units of mutual funds and debentures. However in the secondary market already existing i.e old shares and debentures are traded. This trading takes place through the registered stock exchanges. In India we have three prominent stock exchanges. They are the Bombay Stock Exchange (BSE), the National Stock Exchange (NSE) and Over The Counter Exchange of India (OTCEI).

Development Financial Institutions (DFIs) : This is yet another important segment of Indian capital market. This comprises various...
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