ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE FOR THE PROJECT
The way a project team is structured can play a major role in how it functions. Different styles of team will have different characteristics. For example, do we wish to encourage discussion with the business representatives or to keep them at arm's length so the developers can make good progress? Careful consideration of team composition and reporting relationships can make a big difference to the results. The various roles in the team will depend on the nature of the project. As well as the main team roles, consider the other participants and how they fit into the picture. Project roles and resources will have been identified as part of the planning, estimating and resourcing process.
STYLES OF TEAM
There are two main structural dimensions to the project team:
* What type of resource?
* What are they delivering?
For example, a website designer may be working with business managers and network specialists to create a storefront whilst another website designer is working with different business managers but maybe the same network specialist on an Intranet application for presenting internal management information on sales - both as part of the same project. So, does it make sense to have a team of developers, a team of managers and a team of network specialists, or should we have a team for the storefront and a team for the management information system? Rather than seeing this as an "either or" choice, we could think of the project team as a matrix. Members of the various resource type teams will need to work together to share knowledge and ensure a consistent solution. People working together on the various processes or functional aspects of the solution will equally need to work together. Each of these sub-teams, whether horizontal or vertical, will need a recognized leader. Team members will need to understand their individual roles
ROLES AND RESPONSIBILITY
There are many different roles in addressing a full business solution. Some of these will probably form the core full-time project team. Others may be part-time specialists, and others might be representatives of various groups interested in the project.
Here are some common project roles along with a brief explanation:
| The person who saw a need for change and had the authority to make something happen. There may be several sponsors who collectively have this role. It may be that even higher authority and support is required such that others should also be drawn into this role.
| SUPPORTING SPONSORS
| To succeed in all aspects of the project in all parts of the organization it may be necessary to establish many supporting sponsors at different levels and in different organizational units.
| PROJECT DIRECTOR
| The person with genuine executive authority over the project. The Project Director has full accountability and responsibility for the project's success, and has the power to make all decisions, subject to oversight by the executive bodies.
| EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE
| A body of people representing the overall executive authority of the organization. This might, indeed, be the Board of Directors, or it could be a delegated sub-committee of the Board
| STEERING COMMITTEE OR PROJECT BOARD
| The group of people charged with regular oversight of the project. Collectively they should represent all significant areas of participation in the project and they should have authority to take decisions on behalf of those areas. Members would typically be departmental heads, Vice Presidents, or Directors, along with external representatives. The Project Director and Project Manager would normally report to the Steering Committee.
| PROJECT MANAGER
| The person with day-to-day responsibility for the conduct and success of the project. The Project Manager would normally have control over all project resources.
| PROJECT OFFICE MANAGER / STAFF
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