PROCESSING OF PAPAYA
Nithya Mary.D 20081326
Introduction The papaya is the fruit of the plant Carica papaya, in the genus Carica. It is native to the tropics of the Americas, and was first cultivated in Mexico. It is a large tree-like plant, with a single stem growing tall, with spirally arranged leaves confined to the top of the trunk. The fruits are large, 15–45 centimeters long, 10–30 centimeters diameter. The fruit is ripe when it feels soft and its skin has attained an amber to orange hue. Just like coconut, papaya tree is considered as "Karpaga Viruksha" because, the various parts of the tree are used either for human consumption or for animals or as raw materials for several agro-based industries. Papaya not only helps to improve the farm income but also serves as a cottage industry. Benefits · Papaya contains a high amount of potassium and the flesh of papaya is very high in Vitamin A. · Papaya contains the protein called papain which is a digestive enzyme that helps in natural digestion process. · The skin of papaya is excellent for treating skin wounds and places that do not heal quickly. · Papaya is low in calories and high in nutritive value hence it is an excellent food for those on a diet. · Papaya has anti-inflammatory properties and anti-cancerous properties. The antiinflammatory properties in papaya will help reduce pain for those suffering from arthritis, edema and osteoporosis. · The high concentration of Vitamin C and Vitamin A contained in papaya is very beneficial to strengthen the immune system. · Papaya is also very good for the hair and helps in controlling dandruff. Papaya shampoos are good for the hair. All the parts of the papaya fruit are useful and beneficial. Right from the seeds to the papaya leaves and the flesh of the fruit, all of it has some value. Both the inside and the outside of the fruit can be utilized. Thus no part of the fruit is useless or goes as a waste. Value added products of papaya 1. Papain One of the important and economically manufactured products marketed under this name is the dried milk of raw papaya fruits. This is used industrially in tenderizing meat, to extract oil from liver of 'Tuna' fish, in the manufacture of cosmetics like 'snow' and face creams and dental pastes, in degumming silk and rayon, in the pre-shrinking of wool, in the curing of leather and in brewing industry. In the medicinal field, papain finds use in the treatment of necrotic tissues, dyspepsia and other digestive ailments, ring worm and round worm infection, skin lesions and in disorders of kidney. Several proprietary pharmaceutical preparations using papain are in the market now. The cultivation of papaya for producing papain will be a profitable proposition and substantial quantities for internal and foreign market can be produced by adopting correct techniques. Extraction of Papain Select half to three fourth mature fruits (Between 70 and 100 days of age from fruit set). Early in the morning, before 10:00 a.m. tap the fruits by giving four longitudinal, skin deep incisions on the surface of the fruit from the stalk end to the tip. The four cuts spread over four sides of the fruit. The depth of the incision should not be more than 0.3 cm. A razor blade attached to a handle
with the blade projecting out to the required depth is a handy tool for incision. Sharp bamboo splinters can also be used for incising papaya fruits. Immediately on incising, scrap the latex that solidifies in the cuts and add to the liquid latex. Give the incision at intervals of three to four days. Dry the latex collected every day in the sun or in artificial driers at temperatures of 50°C to 55°C. Add small quantities of potassium meta-bi-sulphate i.e.5 ml dissolved in one liter of water to the liquid latex before it is dried. It helps to extend the storage life of papain to a certain extent. The drying is continued until the product comes off in...