Process of Hrd

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Chapter5. Benefit of planning: persistence, direction, intensified effort, and creation of task strategies. Pitfalls: false sense of certainty, impedes change and adaptation and detachment of planners. How to make a plan work: setting goals, developing commitment to the goals, developing effective action plans, tracking progress toward goal achievement and maintain flexibility in planning. Setting goals: SMART specific, measureable, attainable, realistic and timely. The determination to achieve a goal is increased by: setting goals participatively, making goals reasonable, making goals public and obtaining top management support. An action plan list: specific steps, people, resources, time period. Planning from top to bottom: Top manager(purpose, strategic objectives) middle(tactical plans, MBO) first-level manager(optional, standing, single-use) MBO: management by objectives standing plans: policies, procedures, and rules and regualations. What is rational decision making? Decision making: the process of choosing a solution from available alternatives. Rational decision making: a systematic process of defining problems, evaluating alternatives, and choosing optimal solutions. Steps to rational decision making 1. Define the problem: problem exists when there is a gap between a desired state and an existing state. To make decisions about problems, managers must: be aware of the gap, be motivated to reduce the gap, have the knowledge, skills, abilities, and resources to fix the problem. 2. Identify decision criteria standards used to guide judgments and decisions. The more criteria a potential solution meets, the better that solution should be. 3. Write the criteria absolute comparisons-each criterion is compared to a standard or ranked on its own merits. Relative comparisons- each criterion is compared directly to every other criterion. 4. Generate alternative courses of action- the idea is to generate as many alternatives as possible. 5. Evaluate each...
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