Problems in Operation Management

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ABSTRACT
This assignment asserts that problem identification and problem solving processes can be integrated into work processes by imbedding tests that evaluate system-performance. These tests are imbedded in individual work activities, in the connections that link those who provide a product, service, or information with those who receive it, and in the overall construction of pathways over which products, services, and information take their final form. These immediate tests are possible if work designs are specified before work is performed, and these immediate tests have most value if each indication that a problem has occurred is followed immediately by root-cause analysis and structured problem solving. This assignment shows how the specific tools of the Toyota Production System (‘TPS’) such as pull-systems, comprehensive approach to managing collaborative work systems that allows frequent, fine-grained problem identification and improvement in overall organizational structure, coordinative mechanisms, and task-performance. Therefore, this assignment phrases Toyota’s practices in terms of solving problems of work delegation, coordination, and execution. To explain Toyota’s performance advantages, much focus has been on Toyota’s Just-in-Time tools such as kanban-card paced pull systems, frequent, small batch production and delivery, and reduced inventories. For instance, Hopp and Spearman (2000) have contrasted ConWIP and kanban control of production flows. Deleersnyder et al (1989) and Lee (1989) have compared the relative efficacy of push and pull approaches for production.

INTRODUCTION

Just-in-time (JIT) is an inventory strategy that strives to improve a business's return on investment by reducing in-process inventory and associated carrying costs. Just In Time production method is also called the Toyota Production System. To meet JIT objectives, the process relies on signals or Kanban ,between different points in the process, which tell production when to make the next part. Kanban are usually 'tickets' but can be simple visual signals, such as the presence or absence of a part on a shelf. Implemented correctly, JIT can improve a manufacturing organization's return on investment, quality, and efficiency. Quick notice that stock depletion requires personnel to order new stock is critical to the inventory reduction at the center of JIT. This saves warehouse space and costs. However, the complete mechanism for making this work is often misunderstood. For instance, its effective application cannot be independent of other key components of a lean manufacturing system or it can "...end up with the opposite of the desired result." In recent years manufacturers have continued to try to hone forecasting methods (such as applying a trailing 13 week average as a better predictor for JIT planning, however some research demonstrates that basing JIT on the presumption of stability is inherently flawed.

TOYOTA INTRODUCTION

The Toyota Production System (TPS) is an integrated socio-technical system, developed by Toyota that comprises its management philosophy and practices. The TPS organizes manufacturing and logistics for the automobile manufacturer, including interaction with suppliers and customers. The system is a major precursor of the more generic "Lean manufacturing." Taiichi Ohno, Shigeo Shingo and Eiji Toyoda developed the system between 1948 and 1975. Originally called "Just In Time Production," it builds on the approach created by the founder of Toyota, Sakichi Toyoda, his son Kiichiro Toyoda, and the engineer Taiichi Ohno. The founders of Toyota drew heavily on the work of W. Edwards Deming and the writings of Henry Ford. When these men came to the United States to observe the assembly line and mass production that had made Ford rich, they were unimpressed. While shopping in a supermarket they observed the simple idea of an automatic drink resupplier; when the customer wants a...
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