Toyota Production System (TPS)
The history of just-in-time and other Japanese manufacturing innovations can be traced to the Toyota Production System developed by Taiichi Ohno. "The Toyota Production System (TPS) is an integrated socio-technical system, developed by Toyota that comprises its management philosophy and practices. The TPS organizes manufacturing and logistics for the automobile manufacturer, including interaction with suppliers and customers."1 "The Toyota Production System (TPS) was established based on two concepts: The first is called "jidoka" (which can be loosely translated as "automation with a human touch") which means that when a problem occurs, the equipment stops immediately, preventing defective products from being produced; The second is the concept of "Just-in-Time," in which each process produces only what is needed by the next process in a continuous flow."2 Jidoka (Auto-Activation)
The aim of this system is to delegate responsibility to the workers for the quality of products from the elementary production tasks themselves. In practice this innovation means that line workers not only have the right, but are obliged to take the time which is necessary in order to carry out the tasks necessary to ensure the maintenance of the highest quality standards at each stage of production, even while production is taking place. Just-In-Time
This system is a method of production programming involves a series of innovation in the production and the preparation of the work more generally in the logistics of production and in the management of the flows and stocks of intermediate and semi-finished goods. These innovations take together constitute a system of production with much reduced stocks, made possible a system of information processing unique and unprecedented in the history of work organization.
Supply Chain Management
Supply chain or value chain management is composed of the operational or tactical activities and can be defined as ‘managing the entire chain of raw material supply, manufacture, assembly and distribution to the end consumer (Jones 1989 cited in Lowson 2002). Christopher (1998)...