PROBABILITY QUESTIONS
Q1). You draw a card at random from a standard deck of 52 cards. Neither you nor anyone else looked at the card you picked. You keep it face down. Your friend then picks a card at random from a remaining 51 cards. a) What is the probability that your card is ace of spades? 1/52 b) What is the probability that your friend’s card is ace of spades? (Hint: Construct the sample space for what your friend’s card can be.) 1/51 c) You turn over your card and it is 10 of diamonds. Now what is the probability that your friend’s card is the ace of spades? 1/51 Q2). Suppose that 25% of the population in your area is exposed to a television commercial of Ford Automotive, and 34% is exposed to Ford’s radio advertisements. Also it is known that 10% of the population is exposed to both means of advertising. If a person is randomly chosen out of the entire population in this area, what is the probability that he or she was exposed to at least one of the two modes of advertising? ANS: P(A) = 0.25 P(B) = 0.34 P(A^B) = 0.10

Probability that he/she was exposed to at least one mode of advertising = 0.25 + 0.34 + 0.1 = 69% Q3). A Firm has 550 employees, 380 of them have had at least some college education, and 412 of the employees underwent a vocational training program. Furthermore, 357 employees are both college educated and have had vocational training. If an employee is chosen at random, what is the probability that he or she is college educated or has had the vocational training or both? Q4). A bank loan officer knows that 12% of the bank’s mortgage holders lose their jobs and default on the loan in the course of 5 years. She also knows that 20% of the bank’s mortgage holders lose their jobs during this period. Given that one of her mortgage holders just lost his job, what is the probability that he will now default on the loan? Q5) A Recent survey conducted by Towers Perrin and published in the Financial Times showed that among 460...

...a popular card game in Saudi Arabia. A lot of people like to play it, from old men to young boys. The game has become a tradition for young people. They play it anywhere: in front of the sea, in coffee shop and in their apartments. Balot has a basic set of rules all players have to learn suits and apply. Before play one must have 4 players and 32 cards from the ace to the 7 in all suits. The game has two different styles, San and Hokom. There is also the balding of hands for the score and different roles between areas. By learning the ryles of Balot you will learn how to play it.
First, the San, in the San the order of the cards form the highest to the lowest is A, 10, king, queen, jack, 9, 8, 7. When one of the players choose San that's the order that all players must play in. The same order applies to all shapes. For example, if one of the players throw the 10 of hearts and no one throws the ace and we know that the 10 is the second in order, that means he will take the four play cards and throw another card. If one of the players throw the 8 of hearts and no one has any card from the same suit, he will take the four cards even if one of them throw, the 10 or king the 8 will be the highest card, because it is one of kind. If one of the players didn't play the same suit that the other players playing, the round is over and the other team gets the...

...THERE HAVE ALWAYS BEEN VOCATIONAL ASPECTS TO SCHOOLING IN AUSTRALIA. HOWEVER, IN RECENT TIMES THERE HAS BEEN AN INCREASED EMPHASIS ON THIS ASPECT OF SCHOOLING WITHIN BOTH THE GENERAL CURRICULUM AND THOSE AREAS THAT HAVE A PARTICULAR VOCATIONAL FLAVOUR.
IN WHAT WAYS DOES THIS EMPHASIS PROVIDE A BROADER OR NARROWER CONCEPTION OF EDUCTION FOR SCHOOL STUDENTS?
YOUR RESPONSE NEEDS TO REFER TO: (I) THE AIMS OF THE NEW VOCATIONALISM' AND HOW IT IS CURRENTLY BEING MANIFESTED IN SECONDARY SCHOOLING; (II) HOW EQUALITY OF OUTCOMES FOR ALL SENIOR STUDENTS CAN BE MANAGED AT AT TIME OF HIGH STUDENT RETENTION IN THE POST-COMPULSORY YEARS AND (III) A CRITIQUE OF THE CURRENT VET IN SCHOOLS POLICY.
Aims and Origins of New Vocationalism
What is vocational education? That depends on the period in history and whom you ask. There is probably no greater bone of contention or confusion among educators. Vocational education or educating students to fulfil their vocation or calling in life is such a broad definition. Traditionally it has been seen as an education for those not taking up tertiary studies, for those who instead undertake hands on training before entering the world of work. If this then is the definition, entry to some of the most highly regarded professions, is through vocational education. Take for example the doctor, teacher or the architect. In each of these cases the undergraduate...

...7/5/2013
Acknowledgement
We would like to thank Mr. Sudhir Kumar, Sr. Manager (Hindi) for giving us an opportunity to explore our ideas and interact with experts of the industry at Panipat Refinery.
We extend our thanks to Mr. S K Verma, Sr. Inst. Engineer (MEG Unit) for their inspiration and kind support. We would also thank to Mr. Y B Joshi, DM(T&D) and Mr. Kaushik Dutta for their valuable suggestions during the training period.
We would also like to thank all officers and staff of the company for their support and cooperation.
Finally we would like to express our sincere gratitude to our parents, for helping us to undertake this training and constantly encouraging me to interact with the experts and make the best use of the immense opportunities available at the refinery.
Pawan Kumar
Anurag Kumar
Bachelor of Technology (2nd year)
Bachelor of Technology (2nd year)
Instrumentation & Control Engineering
Instrumentation & Control Engineering
National Institute of Technology Jalandhar
National Institute of Technology Jalandhar
Contents
S. No.
Topics
Page No.
1.
An Overview
2.
MEG
3.
HDPE
4.
PP
5.
CPP
6.
ANALYZER
7.
MCR
8.
PROJECT
INDIAN OIL CORPORATION
AN OVERVIEW:
Indian Oil Corporation is a key player in the Indian energy sector, a Public Sector Undertaking Maharatna, meeting 47% of national petroleum consumption and contributing 6% of the revenues to the...

...1. Training methods used to stimulate learning can be classified in three ways, one of which is
conferences
lectures
on-the-job training
intelligent tutoring
2. In evaluating training programs, it is important to distinguish _____ from data-collection methods.
organizational payoffs
cost-benefit analysis
individual participation
targets of evaluation
3. The evaluation phase is one phase of the process for effective training to occur. Which of the following is not a part of the evaluation phase?
Select training media
Develop criteria
Pretest trainees
Monitor training
4. _____ analysis is helpful in determining the special needs of a particular group, such as older workers, women, or managers at different levels.
Individual
Organization
Demographic
Operations
5. Which of the following is an example of an on-the-job training method?
Understudy assignments
Role playing
Intelligent tutoring
Case method
6. Which of the following is an example of the simulation method of training?
Job rotation
Orientation
Correspondence courses
In-basket
7. The level of training needs analysis that attempts to identify the content of the training is _____ analysis.
environmental
operations
organizational
individual
8....

...PROBABILITY DISTRIBUTION
In the world of statistics, we are introduced to the concept of probability. On page 146 of our text, it defines probability as "a value between zero and one, inclusive, describing the relative possibility (chance or likelihood) an event will occur" (Lind, 2012). When we think about how much this concept pops up within our daily lives, we might be shocked to find the results. Oftentimes, we do not think in these terms, but imagine what the probability of us getting behind the wheel of a car twice a day, Monday through Friday, and arriving at work and home safely. Thankfully, the probability for me has been 'one'! This means that up to this point I have made it to work and returned home every day without getting into an accident. While probability might have one outcome with one set of circumstances, this does not mean it will always turn out that way. Using the same example, just because I have arrived at work every day without getting into an accident, this does not mean it will always be true. As I confess with my words, and pray it does stay the same, probability tells me there is room for a different outcome.
In business, we often look at the probability of success or financial gain when making a decision. There are several things to take into consideration such as the experiment, potential outcomes, and possible events. An...

...of observations, which gives each observation equal weight, the mean of a random variable weights each outcome xi according to its probability, pi. The mean also of a random variable provides the long-run average of the variable, or the expected average outcome over many observations.The common symbol for the mean (also known as the expected value of X) is , formally defined by
Variance - The variance of a discrete random variable X measures the spread, or variability, of the distribution, and is defined by
The standard deviation is the square root of the variance.
Expectation - The expected value (or mean) of X, where X is a discrete random variable, is a weighted average of the possible values that X can take, each value being weighted according to the probability of that event occurring. The expected value of X is usually written as E(X) or m.
E(X) = S x P(X = x)
So the expected value is the sum of: [(each of the possible outcomes) × (the probability of the outcome occurring)].In more concrete terms, the expectation is what you would expect the outcome of an experiment to be on average.
2. Define the following;
a) Binomial Distribution - is the discrete probability distribution of the number of successes in a sequence of n independent yes/no experiments, each of which yields success with probability p. Therewith the probability of an event is defined by its binomial...

...CHAPTER 3: PROBABILITY DISTRIBUTION
3.1
RANDOM VARIABLES AND PROBABILITY DISTRIBUTION
Random variables is a quantity resulting from an experiment that, by chance, can assume different values. Examples of random variables are the number of defective light bulbs produced during the week and the heights of the students is a class. Two types of random variables are discrete random variables and continuous random variable.
3.2
DISCRETE RANDOM VARIABLE
A random variable is called a discrete random variable if its set of posibble outcomes is countable. Probability distribution is a listing of all the outcomes of an experiment and the probability associated with each outcome. For example, the probability distribution of rolling a die once is as below: Outcome, x Probability, P(x) 1 1 6 2 1 6 3 1 6 4 1 6 5 1 6 6 1 6
The probability distribution for P(x) for a discrete random variable must satisfy two properties: 1. The values for the probabilities must be from 0 to 1; 0 ≤ ( ) ≤ 1 2. The sum for P(x) must be equal to 1; ∑ ( ) = 1
QMT200
3.2.1 FINDING MEAN AND VARIANCE Mean of X is also referred to as its “expected value”.
= ( ) Where: = ∑[ ( )]
( )=
= (
) − [ ( )]
(
)=
[
( )] = ( )
Example 1 An experiment consists of tossing two coins simultaneously. Write down the sample space. If X is the number of tails observed,...

...VOCATIONAL EDUCATION AND TRAINING Policy and Practice in the field of Special Needs Education
Literature Review
European Agency for Development in Special Needs Education
VOCATIONAL EDUCATION AND TRAINING
Policy and Practice in the field of Special
Needs Education
Literature Review
European Agency for Development in Special Needs Education
The production of this document has been supported by the DG Education and Culture of the http://ec.europa.eu/ European Commission: dgs/education_culture/index_en.htm This publication reflects the views only of the project partners and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein.
Edited by: Anabel Corral Granados, Staff member, European Agency for Development in Special Needs Education
Extracts from the document are permitted provided that a clear reference to the source is given. This report should be referenced as follows: European Agency for Development in Special Needs Education (2012) Vocational Education and Training: Policy and Practice in the field of Special Needs Education – Literature Review, Odense, Denmark: European Agency for Development in Special Needs Education More information on the project can be found at the project web area:...

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