1.What is the purpose of education?
THE PURPOSE OF EDUCATION- How a teacher approaches classroom management—the priorities and techniques he or she uses—depends on his or her goals. If the purpose of classroom management is to elicit compliance, the methods chosen will reflect this choice. For example, the military requires behavior rooted in obedience. The methods used to foster compliant behavior include intimidation, drills, routine, and loyalty oaths. These methods are appropriate because the military needs to train soldiers and sailors who will follow commands unquestioningly. The purpose of education is to teach students to be responsible citizens (Langdon, 1996). However, the word responsible is an abstract term that has different meanings for different people. To some, responsible behavior means obedience to authority. To others, responsible behavior means exercising self-control, without the need for constant supervision. The definition of responsibility that guides the organization of this text is as follows: Responsible behavior is self directed and is characterized by the ability to make socially appropriate choices, care for others, and be accountable for personal action. Figure 1.1 illustrates the difference between compliance and responsibility. Marzano said the following about responsibility in the classroom: Ample evidence indicates that teaching responsibility is a high priority in U.S. education. Speaking of self-discipline, Bear (1998) explains that “the American public’s belief that schools should play a role in teaching self-discipline has never been greater than it is today” (p. 15). He cites the 1996 Gallup study (Elam, Rose, & Gallup, 1996) indicating that 98 percent of the public believes that the primary purpose of public schools should be to prepare students to be responsible citizens. (2003, p. 77) If educators want students to be responsible rather than compliant, they must think carefully about how they can achieve their goal. The means used to manage students, the structures developed, and the disciplinary techniques used must be considered in view of end results (Charles, 2000). For instance, trying to teach students to make good choices while using overbearing tactics to force obedience would be counterproductive (Good & Brophy, 2000). The teacher who extols virtues of student personal responsibility as he or she controls students through rewards and punishments is preaching one set of values and exercising another. Kohn (2002) argued that teachers who “try to have it both ways” send mixed messages that undercut the value of each. To teach responsible behavior teachers should structure classroom practices that invite participation and use disciplinary approaches that promote self-control. 2.What are the variables that contribute to behavioral problem? TABLE 1.1 Variables That Contribute to Behavioral Problems
Student TemperamentTeacher Behavior
Toxins or drug abuse
Social skills deficits
Overreaction to misbehavior
Overreliance on punishment
Group DynamicsClassroom Organization
Dysfunctional group roles
Bullying and teasing
Student apathy or hostility
Uncomfortable physical setting
Obliviousness to cultural differences
3.What is social competence?
Social competence is the ability to maintain peer relationships and exhibit pro-social behavior in school. According to H. Patrick (1997), “A substantial body of evidence suggests that a positive association exists between students’ social competence and their academic performance, including achievement, school adjustment, and motivation for schoolwork” (p. 209). Students who are rejected or isolated are at risk of low social competence, as are students who...