Principle and Practice of Management

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REG. NO :-IIMM/AP/1/2006/5150



ANSWER:- 1(a)
All the managers have to perform certain functions in the organization to get the things done by the others. Functions of management are:- a) Planning
b) Organising
c) Staffing
d) Leading
e) Controlling
f) Coordination

(a)Planning: -Planning is an indispensable function of management. It determines the objectives to be achieved and the course of action to be followed to achieve them. No real plan exists until a decision – a commitment of human or material resources has been made. Planning includes:- i) Determination of objectives

ii) Forecasting
iii) Search of alternate course of action and their evaluation iv) Drawing policies and procedures
v) Budgeting

Planning is a pre-requisite of doing any thing. Planning is continuous and never ending activity. It leads to more effective and faster achievements in any organization and enhance the ability of the organization to adopt to future eventualities. We can say that it is nothing but a decision making in advance at all levels.

(b)Organising: -Organising is the process of dividing the work into the convenient tasks or duties of delegating authority to each so that work is carried out as planned. Organising involves identification and grouping activities to be performed and dividing them among the individuals and responsibility relationships among them. The process of organising involves the following steps:-

(i)Determination of objectives.
(ii)Division of activities.
iii) Fitting individual to specific jobs.
iv) Developing relationship in terms of authorities and responsibilities. v) Coordinating the activity throughout the organization as planned. Organising can be viewed as a bridge connecting the conceptional ideas developed in creating and planning to the specific means for accomplishing these ideas. Organising contribution to the efficiency of the organisation.

(c)Staffing: -The staffing function has assumed great importance these days because of rapid advancement of technology, increasing size of organisations and complicated behaviour of human beings. The managerial function of staffing involves manning the organizational structures through proper and effective selection, appraisal, and the development of personnel to fill the roles designed into the structure. The staffing involves following functions:- i) Proper recruitment and selection of people.

ii) Fixing remuneration.

iii) Training and developing selected people to discharge organizational function. iv) The appraisal of personnel.
Every manager is continuously engaged in performing the staffing function. Although same elementary functions like keeping inventory of personnel, advertising for jobs, calling candidates etc. are assigned Personnel department. The managers perform the duties of job analysis, job description, appraisal of efficiency etc. thus staffing function is also a pervasive function management. (d)Leading: - Leading is influencing people so that they will contribute to organisation and group goals. It is the part of management process which actuates organisation members to work efficiently and effectively for the attainment of organisation objectives. Planning, organising and staffing are merely preparation for doing work and the work actually starts when managers start performing the leading function. Leading is the interpersonal aspect of management which deals directly with influencing, guiding, supervising and motivating the subordinates for the accomplishment of the pre-determined objectives. Leading consist of following:- ❖ Communication: -It is the process of passing information and understanding from one person to another. A manager to be successful, should...
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