1) Caplan’s Mental Health Consultation
In his view, maladaptive behavior and psychological disturbance arise because caregivers, family, friends, and community groups within a social system to do not provide sufficient direction, support and stability when an individual is faced with a stressful life event. He believed that mental health consultation is a service to many different professionals to assist them in dealing with the psychological aspects of a current work problem, and, to deal more effectively with similar problems in the future. This type of consultation was developed as a preventative approach to dealing with mental disorders.
o Both intrapsychic (consultee’s feelings, attitudes, and beliefs) and environmental factors are important in explaining and changing behavior. o Consultees are responsible for action because in Caplan’s view, the direct involvement of consultants in problem resolution diminishes the feelings of ownership over problems and solutions. o Consultee attitudes and feelings are important, but cannot be dealt with directly (need to use a displacement object)
Four types of consultation:
a. Client-centered case consultation: The consultant functions as a specialist who assesses the client, makes a diagnosis, and makes recommendations as to how the consultee (often a teacher) might modify his or her dealings with the client (often a student). Focuses on developing a plan that will help a specific client. The primary goal is to advise the consultee regarding treatment and to develop a plan to deal with the client’s difficulties. Usually the consultant meets with the consultee’s client to help diagnose a problem. The consultant is responsible for assessing problem and prescribing course of action. Implementation of the consultant’s recommendations is the responsibility of the consultee.
b. Consultee-centered case consultation: This type of consultation is most closely identified with Caplan. Like the client-centered consultation, this is concerned with difficulties a consultee encounters with a particular client for whom he or she has responsibility. Primary goal is to remediate the shortcomings in the consultee’s professional functioning that are responsible for difficulties, with client improvement a secondary goal. Thus, there is little or no direct assessment of the client. Sources of consultee difficulty include:
i. lack of knowledge
ii. lack of skill
iii. lack of confidence
iv. lack of objectivity. ( Theme interference = an unsolved problem or defeat that the consultee has experienced, which makes the person believe they will always experience the negative (B) when they try A or have a specific situation. This is what he believes is most effectively dealt with in consultation. Principle methods consultant can use:
1) Verbal focus on the client
2) The parable (use an example)
3) Nonverbal focus on the case
4) Nonverbal focus on the consultation relationship Lack of skill and lack of confidence are both areas that are not well suited to consultation.
c. Program-centered administrative consultation:
This is similar to client-centered case consultation because the consultant is viewed as a specialist who is called in to study a problem and provide a set of recommendations for dealing with a problem. Difference = The consultant is concerned with problems surrounding the development of a new program or some aspect of organizational functioning. Usually very rapid-paced and over quickly.
d. Consultee-centered administrative consultation:
The goal of consultee-centered administrative consultation is to improve the professional functioning...