Wytheville Community College
Life Span Development PSY 232-95
November 2, 2011
Post-traumatic Stress Disorder, Depression, and Anxiety Disorders: Correlation in Patients When Treated and Untreated
What is post-traumatic stress disorder? In this paper we review what post-traumatic stress disorder is, how this disorder affects individuals, how individuals cope, and how individuals function in a modern society. In this paper we will show the signs and symptoms to be watchful for, as well as, where to go to for help and the different types of treatment available, for example, medication, types of behavioral therapy and alternative therapies, such as acupuncture and aromatherapy. We also discuss the types of trauma that could lead to PTSD, depression and other anxiety disorders, for example, abuse, accidents, hate crimes and war. We discuss the correlation between PTSD and depression, and other anxiety disorders; we discuss dependency in the victim; we provide discussion about non-treatment results, as well as the dangers of thought suppression and the dangers of abusing drugs and alcohol. We also discuss how childhood abuse affects an individual’s health later in life; how post-traumatic stress disorder could lead to more problems if left untreated, such as depression, anxiety disorders, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes in both adults and adolescents. [Kendall-Tackett, (2002), Kendall-Tackett, Marshall & Ness (2003); Groer, Thomas, Evans, Helton, & Weldon (2006); Kendall-Tackett (2007, April); Kendall-Tackett (2007, Spring/Summer); Kendall-Tackett (2007, Winter); Kendall-Tackett (2008); Kendall-Tackett & Klest (2009)] Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder
What is Post-traumatic Stress Disorder? Who does it affect? How do we help someone who has been through a traumatic experience? These questions are serious to those who know someone affected by this disorder. “Trauma is by nature interpersonal and is, therefore, a systemic entity.”(Figley & Figley, 2009, p.173) Mental Health America (2011) reported that after “a traumatic experience, it is normal to feel lots of emotions, such as distress, fear, hopelessness, guilt, shame, or anger. You may start to feel better after days or weeks, but sometimes, these feelings just don’t go away. If the symptoms last for more than a month, you may have post-traumatic stress disorder…PTSD is a real problem and can happen at any age. If you have PTSD, you are not alone. It affects nearly eight million American adults.” The best definition and description found through our research was from Smith & Segal (2011) and it stated that PTSD develops “Following any traumatic event that threatens your safety or makes you feel helpless…can affect those who personally experience the catastrophe, those who witness it, and those picking up the pieces afterwards…it can even occur in the friends or family members of those who went through the actual trauma.”
“Nearly half of U.S. adults experience a traumatic event, but only 10% of women and 5% of men develop PTSD” (Ozer & Weiss, 2004, p.169). The types of traumatic events that affect individuals vary from person to person, the range is quite large. For adolescents, “most traumas begin at home (Van der Kolk, 2005, p.402)” and approximately 80% responsible for the abuses are their parents (Van der Kolk, 2005, p.402). Events such as abuse, accidents, hate crimes and war are a few examples. For many people, symptoms begin almost right away after the trauma happens. For others, the symptoms may not begin or may not become a problem until years later. Symptoms of PTSD may include: * Repeatedly thinking about the trauma. You may find that thoughts about the trauma come to mind even when you don’t want them to. You might also have nightmares or flashbacks...