Introduction to Environmental
Amongst the developing countries, India is the foremost nation to take note of degradation of environment. In 1972, in the world environmental conference held at Stockholm, our government declared that it is their responsibility to control pollution in India. Even during recent global conference held at Kyoto in Japan, India accepted the responsibility of reducing global warming and depletion of ozone layer by banning the use of chloro-fluoro carbons in cryogenic engineering within a stipulated period. Even in the recent conference held in Rio-de-Janeiro, India declared solidarity by conforming to the standards as stipulated by United States Environmental Protection Agencies (US-EPA). Perhaps India was the foremost country in third worlds to implement rigorously pollution legislation both for air and water. We accepted the stipulated levels of the pollutants in act designated as ‘maximum permissible level’ to be implemented in successive stages in few years. Within India, Maharashtra state was the front runner to enact Water Pollution and Control Act in 1962. This was followed by passing of Comprehensive Environmental Protection Bill for prevention of air pollution in 1983. Maharashtra, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh were the first states in Indian union to have pollution control board with attached analytical laboratories. This was followed by the setting of series of laboratories in all remaining states of the nation. A legislation was passed. The grave tragedy of Bhopal in 1984 by accidentally releasing deadly poisonous gas such as methyl isocyanate took a toll of more than 4500 people who were innocent and helpless. With the growing civilisation and with rise in traffic, auto-exhaust emission also takes a toll of people. Therefore government enacted ‘PUC’ act to check every vehicle periodically and control, release of hazardous gases like NO-NOx , CO, and hydrocarbons in air.
As a matter of fact, India did much more than any other developing country could do to control pollution. Even in controlling global warming and reduction of the Green House gases we were certainly ahead of developed countries like Canada, USA, Australia. General incentives were given by our government to design and develop indigenously pollution monitoring instruments within the country and make us self-sufficient. At moment, separate ministry looks after all problems related to pollution. In fact, all nations have their own ministry or department to implement effectively legislation related to control of pollution. We have passed act and prevented transportation of hazardous chemicals a big2 Environmental Pollution Analysis offence on express highways. The abatement of noise pollution surrounding airports, hospitals was taken care by our legislation. Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) was rigorously followed during setting of new industries and environmental modelling has been used to carry out future foresting of pollution and resorting to effective control measures of pollution. Basically, our environment is composed of atmosphere, earth, water and space. In absence of pollution, it remains clean and enjoyable. The interaction of the atmosphere, lithosphere, hydrosphere and biosphere is continuing for years together. On account of the various activities of man, the composition and complex nature of environment gets changed. These activities include industrialization, construction, transportation. Such activities, although desirable for human development and welfare, lead to generation and release of objectionable materials into the environment thus turning it foul, and rendering our life miserable.
The natural environment is clean, but due to multiferious activities of man it gets polluted resulting in what is called as environmental pollution. Our main aim should be to keep our environment clean, by curbing industrial activities. However, in order to keep pace with the rapid...