Local Political Ecology and the Effect of Globalization

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Department of Thematic Studies Campus Norrköping

Local Political Ecology and the Effect of Globalization
A Study of Industrial Water Pollution in Tirupur, South India

Jennie Malm

Master of Science Thesis, Environmental Science Programme, 2004

Linköpings universitet, Campus Norrköping, SE-601 74 Norrköping, Sweden

Institution, Avdelning Department, Division Institutionen för tematisk utbildning och forskning, Miljövetarprogrammet Department of thematic studies, Environmental Science Programme Språk Language Svenska/Swedish X Engelska/English ________________ Rapporttyp Report category Licentiatavhandling Examensarbete AB-uppsats C-uppsats X D-uppsats Övrig rapport ________________

Datum Date

ISBN _____________________________________________________ ISRN LIU-ITUF/MV-D--04/18--SE ____________________________________________________________

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ISSN
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_____ Serietitel och serienummer Title of series, numbering

URL för elektronisk version http://www.ep.liu.se/exjobb/ituf/ Handledare Tutor Anna Jonsson

Titel Lokal politisk ekologi och globaliseringens påverkan- en studie av industriell vattenförorening i Tirupur, Södra Indien

Title Local Political Ecology and the Effect of Globalisation- A study of Industrial Water Pollution in Tirupur, South India Författare Author Jennie Malm

Sammanfattning Abstract

Globalization and international competition put pressure on local communities to adjust to international standards of price and quality in production. Tirupur in India produces clothes for exports to the first world market. Because of the process of dyeing and bleaching of fabrics the river Noyyal that flows through the town and the surrounding ground water have become polluted. At the local level actors, like the state, business, NGOs and grassroots take action in different ways depending on their interests. The aim with this thesis is both to analyze the situation at the local level from the views and actions of different actors and how the local situation is influenced by globalization. Qualitative interviews have been made with representatives from these actors in Tirupur and its surroundings. This material has then been analyzed from the theory of Third World political ecology and globalization. The conclusions drawn from this study are that the situation in Tirupur cannot exclusively be explained at just one level. Local, national and global politics affect Tirupur. A politicized environment characterizes the local situation where actions against the pollution are not taken for the benefit of the powerful. People also lack empowerment to take action because of dependency on the industry. At the national level centralization is a problem in India because it results in difficulties for the civil society and people to reach elected representatives and influence from the local community. Another problem is the policy maker’s lack of understanding of the local situation. At last globalization limits the way to handle the pollution because of the global competition and the retreat of the state. But it also gives possibilities for the civil society to grow stronger internationally, perhaps with the possibility to create a change.

Nyckelord Keywords Third World political ecology, globalization, India, industrial water pollution, actor-oriented, local community

Abstract
Globalization and international competition put pressure on local communities to adjust to international standards of price and quality in production. Tirupur in India produces clothes for exports to the first world market. Because of the process of dyeing and bleaching of fabrics the river Noyyal that flows through the town and likewise the surrounding ground water have become polluted. At the local level actors, like the state, business, NGOs and grassroots take action in different ways depending on their interests. The aim with this thesis is both to...
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