Political Corruption

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“THE POPULATION GROWTH OF THE PHILIPPINES”
A RESEARCH PAPER
PRESENTED TO
MUZON NATIONAL HIGH SCHOOL
IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
FOR THE SUBJECT
ENGLISH IV

SUBMITTED TO:
MA. CRISTINA L. GIBAS

SUBMITTED BY:
JOYCE ANN F. BERNALDEZ
IV – GENEROUS

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Introduction…………………………………………………………3 Corruption in the Philippines and the Governments’ Response…………………………………………………………….4 Spanish Colonia Era……………………………………………….4 American Colonial Era…………………………………………….4 Post War Era…………………………………………………………5 Martial Law Era ……………………………………………………..5 Government Anti-Corruption Initiatives and Laws……………5 Unmitigated Losses to Corruption …………………………….11 Etymology …………………………………………………………18 Corruption Levels…………………………………………………18 Corruption Improvements……………………………………….18 Statistical Evaluations……………………………………………19 Nepotism……………………………………………………………19 Philippines Remains one of the most corrupt country survey………………………………………………………………..19 Positive developments in relation to corruption and investment…………………………………………………………...23 Risks of Corruption………………………………………………24 Conclusion…………………………………………………………24 Bibliography………………………………………………………...30

Introduction
Corruption is the most evident and very common problem in the world, every country has an issue with regards to it’s government, whether the local barangays, the municipal district up to the higher positions. Information is fundamental to make informed decisions. Information is also power Where it’s not freely accessible,corruption can thrive and basic rights might not be realized. People can hide corrupt acts behind a veil of secrecy. Those with privileged access to information can demand bribes from others also seeking it. People entitled to health or education may be denied these basic services due to lack of access to information about their rights. Governments can hide their actions by controlling or censoring the media. This prevents the facts being reported. The truth is gagged. When our right to know is denied, we can’t hold decision makers or institutions to account for their actions. Nor can we make informed choices when we vote. If information isn’t public, we can’t enjoy many of our rights, such as participating fully in political life. We might not even understand our rights in certain circumstances. When access to information is blocked, we can never know what’s really going on. Ensuring disclosure of – and access to – information can empower people and institutions to prevent and fight corruption. But it’s a two-way process. Governments must proactively release information about what they do. And we must utilize this information to make full use of our rights. We all have a valuable role to play .We need to make sure that national laws guarantee public access to information – and that such laws are implemented on a day-to-day basis. These laws are a key safeguard against corruption. They enable us to monitor what’s happening. This is vital in areas with specific corruption risks, including water, health and education. Over 90 countries have passed access to legislation in the last 15 years but implementation is patchy. Millions of people still don’t know about these laws or know how to use it to their advantage. Global anti-corruption treaties stress the value of access to information. So governments know what reforms they should have in place. And we can monitor their progress in enforcing those reforms. Then we can make sure our right to know is fulfilled. CORRUPTION IN THE PHILIPPINES AND THE GOVERNMENT’S RESPONSE  Spanish Colonial Era:

Corruption is as old as history itself. In the Philippines, it appears to have started historically during the Spanish colonial period when the archipelago was part of the kingdom of the Spanish Monarch. Public office, like everything else within the colony, was treated as a property of the King which he can dispose of as he liked. Government offices or positions...
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