PAt the beginning of XXI century communication processes perform an important role in regulation of state and economic interests. The modern world of information builds its own priorities, based on new types of opportunities of the media and media content. Media content are messages produced by mass media such as Internet, newspapers, magazines, books, video entertainments and television. People have great opportunities of getting information they need in short time. Mass media are important functions of political literacy of citizens and an important channel of political communication (Louw,2010). Without Internet, television, newspapers and magazines, even well-educated people can not properly navigate the complex mosaic of conflicting political processes to make responsible decisions. Media allow them to think outside the box directly to individual experience doing foreseeable world politics, but through the prism of their own vision of political reality. However, there are powers that can affect mass media and it’s content. Media content can be affected by political and economic factors in these ways: the articulation of the public interest, government control on the media, political way of communication with society, economic environment. Therefore, the aim of the essay is to theorize, explain and provide concrete examples of how media can be affected by economic and political factors.
Media content is the basis of modern operation policy as citizens receive political information, form their own political views and beliefs, and are able to influence the functioning of the government largely due to the media. A. Sen (1999) in his book “Development as Freedom” noted about political communication what involves not one-sided signals from the elite to the masses, and the whole range of informal communication processes in society that have a very different impact on policy.
Louw divided political practice into two types: elite politics and mass politics. “Elite politics is aimed to make a policy while mass politics is a mass audience that can be manipulated, directed and distracted” (2010,pp.16). Unfortunately, elite politics can abuse the power it has on hiding the truth. As example can be used an accident happened with a famous journalist Anna Politovskaya. She was writing truth about “Dirty War” between Russian and Chechnya, while Vladimir V. Putin was a president of Russia, and was killed in 7 of October 2006 by the murder who is yet unknown (NYtimes, 2009). At the turn of XXI century we can see a tendency to use media for political campaign and president elections to affect people’s choice. The 2009 Presidential election, Obama’s spin-team directed by campaign advisor of Barak Obama -David Axelrod, developed enormously expensive full spectrum campaign using all options including political marketing techniques and mass media. Obama’s team promoted the concept that not voting for Obama translated into racial discrimination (Louw,2010). The budget of 3 million dollars was spent for the online mass media. More than 1800 videos, audience could watch in Youtube (Croteau, Hoynes and Milan, 2012), and one of the most popular music videos with celebrities, which over 24 million people watched, called “Yes We Can” (WeCan08 2008).
On the other hand, elite politics usually do beneficial laws and regulations for audience by creating restrictions and boundaries on media such as controlling the censorship in videos, radio stations, news and publications. Censorship is the limitation of speech or other ways of communication, which can be identified as harmful and sensitive and controlled by government or other controlling body (censorshipinamerica, n.d.). The video “ The Innocence of Muslims”, which brought lots of sparking riots, was blocked in Youtube by some countries. In other countries due to this video governments banned Youtube. (York, 2012). Another example is that Chinese government spends huge amount of resources...
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