# Pointer and Stack

Topics: Pointer, Reverse Polish notation, Data types Pages: 5 (1257 words) Published: January 31, 2013
Water Billing System
a.) Description

A billing system is a combination of software and hardware that receives call detail and service usage information, groups this information for specific accounts or customers, produces invoices, creates reports for management, and records (posts) payments made to customer accounts.

b.) Related Studies

a.) Sites : Pointers
http://www.tutorialspoint.com/cprogramming/c_quick_guide.htm

A pointer is a variable whose value is the address of another variable ie. direct address of the memory location. Like any variable or constant, you must declare a pointer before you can use it to store any variable address. The general form of a pointer variable declaration is: -------------------------------------------------

type *var-name;
Here, type is the pointer's base type; it must be a valid C data type and var-name is the name of the pointer variable. The asterisk * you used to declare a pointer is the same asterisk that you use for multiplication. However, in this statement the asterisk is being used to designate a variable as a pointer. Following are the valid pointer declaration: -------------------------------------------------

int *ip; /* pointer to an integer */
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double *dp; /* pointer to a double */
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float *fp; /* pointer to a float */
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char *ch /* pointer to a character */
The actual data type of the value of all pointers, whether integer, float, character, or otherwise, is the same, a long hexadecimal number that represents a memory address. The only difference between pointers of different data types is the data type of the variable or constant that the pointer points to. b.) Books : Problem Solving And Problem Design in C, Hanly & Koffman, 1996

Pointers are widely used in programming; they are used to refer to memory location of another variable without using variable identifier itself. They are mainly used in linked lists and call by reference functions. A pointer works a little differently— it does not store a simple value directly. Instead, a pointer stores a reference to another value. The variable the pointer refers to is sometimes known as its "pointee". In a drawing, a pointer is a box which contains the beginning of an arrow which leads to its pointee. (There is no single, official, word for the concept of a pointee — pointee is just the word used in these explanations.)

c.) Thesis : Thesis Escalante Water District Billing System

This study is entitled Computerized Escalante Water District Membership and Billing System. the software developers proposed the computerized membership and billing system. The system is developed specially to meet the needs of Escalante Water District’s management and Customers only.

c.) Synthesis

Reverse Polish Notation Calculator

a.) Description

Reverse Polish Notation is a way of expressing arithmetic expressions that avoids the use of brackets to define priorities for evaluation of operators. In ordinary notation, one might write(3 + 5) * (7 – 2) and the brackets tell us that we have to add 3 to 5, then subtract 2 from 7, and multiply the two results together. In RPN, the numbers and operators are listed one after another, and an operator always acts on the most recent numbers in the list. The numbers can be thought of as forming a stack, like a pile of plates. The most recent number goes on the top of the stack. An operator takes the appropriate number of arguments from the top of the stack and replaces them by the result of the operation.

b.) Related Studies

a.) Site: Stacks

A stack is a container of objects that are inserted and...