Vishakha Bansal Payal Gupta Kanwardeep Singh
ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING Part – 2 , IT-BHU
Abstract: Our group aims to produce sustainable energy using piezoelectric crystal pads. “Power harvesting” from vibrations of the piezoelectric substances is the topic of latest research. In our paper we intend to theoretically shed light on the feasibility regarding the use of piezoelectric crystals for generation of energy for meeting the future energy requirements. We are proposing two methods for the use of piezoelectric pads for energy development harnessing the huge pressure gradient available in the ocean waters. In our first model we propose the installation of piezoelectric crystal mats in sea beds at suitable depth meeting the requirements of the pressure needed for the development of appreciable amount of voltage in the crystals. In second model we propose to install slanted piezoelectric assemblies at the sea shore to produce pressure difference by incoming waves.
them when piezoelectric material is subjected to some mechanical force it generates an electrical voltage and when an electric voltage is applied it undergoes deformation. Piezoelectric energy harvesting means generating energy using the pressure from the environmental energy. It makes use of the direct piezoelectric effect. It means that deformation of the piezoelectric material is used for generating energy. When a piezoelectric material is pressed or pulled in the direction of its thickness generation of energy occurs. Due to the distortion of the lattice structure an electric charge is produced on the surface of the piezoelectric material. For example: A 1 cm3 cube of quartz with 2 kN (500 lbf) of correctly applied force can produce a voltage of 12500 V. Owing to these characteristics piezoelectric materials can be used as a sensor, an actuator, as well as a power generation unit.
Keywords: piezoelectricity, quick pack, Piezoelectric Fiber composites, Macro Fiber composites,
Introduction to Piezoelectricity:
The word “piezo” is a Greek word which means “to press”. Therefore, piezoelectricity means electricity generated from pressure. The piezoelectric effect was first studied by Carl Linnaeus and Franz Aepinus in the 18th century. According to
Electric charge generation in these kind of materials involves stretching of thin sheets of polymers. These are used for directional microphones and ultrasonic hydrophones. E.g.: polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF or PVF2) Piezoelectric composites:
It is made up of both piezoelectric ceramics and polymers without any chemical combination. These are used for under water SONAR. Figure-Mini Piezoelectric Device
There are 3 types of piezoelectric composites: o Macrofibre composite:
Types of piezoelectric materials:
There are many type of piezoelectric materials: Single crystal materials Piezoceramics Piezoplymers Piezocomposites Piezo films Single Crystal:
These are made up of piezoelectric fibers. They have high flexibility and durability. When MFC are made up of PZT fibers then the overall strength of the material is greatly enhanced in comparison to the base material.
They are anisotropic and have different properties depending on the cut-off materials and direction of bulk or surface wave propagation. These materials are used for frequency stabilized oscillators. E.g.: Quartz, lithium nibonate (LiNbO3), and lithium tantalite (LiTaO3) Piezoelectric ceramics:
Piezoelectric fiber composite:
They have pervoskite structure. Its properties can be easily changed by incorporating various cations in the structure. E.g.: Barium Titanate (BaTiO3) and Lead Titanate (PbTiO3)
These are made up of unidirectional aligned piezoelectric fibers of circular cross-section. It has high flexibility, highly damage tolerant and cost effective.
Quick Pack composites:
These are made...