Contributions of Ernest Lawrence and Andre Ampere to Physics

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Name: -
Teacher: -
Scientists: Ernest Orlando Lawrence
Andre-Marie Ampere
Subject: Physics
Class: 12A
Due Date: 20th August 2012

Name: -
Teacher: -
Scientists: Ernest Orlando Lawrence
Andre-Marie Ampere
Subject: Physics
Class: 12A
Due Date: 20th August 2012
Physics ERT: Magnetism
Physics ERT: Magnetism

Table of Contents
Table of Contents2
Introduction3
Background and Personal Information4
Ernest Orlando Lawrence4
Andre-Marie Ampere5
Experiments and results6
Ernest Orlando Lawrence6
Andre-Marie Ampere10
Significance of contributions to physics13
Ernest Orlando Lawrence13
Andre-Marie Ampere14
A brief comparison15
Application to a modern device16
Conclusion17
Bibliography18

Physics ERT: Electro Magnetism
Introduction

The purpose of this report is to outline the background and personal information regarding Ernest Orlando Lawrence and Andre-Marie Ampere. Accurate details of experimental procedures and results obtained by these Physicists will be discussed and analysed. Lawrence’s Cyclotron and his influence on high energy physics and Ampere’s contributions to the field of electrodynamics will be deliberated along with a reasoned decision as to which scientist made the greater contribution to Science (ERT, 2012).

Background and Personal Information
Ernest Orlando Lawrence

Ernest Orlando Lawrence was born in Canton, South Dakota to parents, Carl Gustavus and Gunda Lawrence.

He began his education at Canton High School followed by St. Olaf College. In 1922 he received an M.A. in Chemistry from the University of South Dakota, followed by another M.A. from the University of Minnesota in 1923. He then received his Ph.D. from Yale University two years later, Becoming a professor after three more years of study.

During this stint at Yale, a diagram in an article by Rolf Wideroe captivated Lawrence. The aim of the article was to produce ‘very high-energy particles required for atomic disintegration by means of a succession of very small pushes’ (Encyclopedia.com, 2012). The device was laid out in a straight line using increasingly longer electrodes. Lawrence saw that such an accelerator would become too long; therefore he developed a device called the Cyclotron, which consisted of a circular channel. This device would accelerate protons between two semicircular electrodes. The phenomenon would cause the protons to reach extremely high velocities without the use of high voltage (Nobel Foundation, 1939). The creation of new elements was achieved by shooting the high velocity particles into atoms of various elements.

Andre-Marie Ampere

Ampère was born on 20 January 1775 to parents Jean-Jacques Ampère and Jeanne Antoinette Desutieres-Sarcey Ampère. Ampere lacked formal schooling as his father believed that young boys should ‘avoid formal schooling and pursue instead an “education direct from nature” therefore inspiring his son to seek knowledge through the use of his library.

Despite his lack of formal qualifications, Ampère was appointed a professor of mathematics at Ecole Polytechnique, Paris in 1809. He was then selected for a position in experimental physics at the College de France in 1824.

A Danish physicist named Hans Christian Orsted inspired Ampere. Orsted serendipitously discovered a relationship between electricity and magnetism by noting the effect an electric current had over a magnetic needle. Ampere began developing a mathematical theory in an attempt to understand this relationship. Through this research, Ampère showed that two parallel wires carrying electric currents attract each other when the currents flow in the same direction and repel each other when the currents flow in opposite directions (Fitzpatrick, 2007). He also applied mathematics in generalizing physical laws...
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