Number of Washers | 4 | 6 | 8 | 10 | 12 | Mass of Washers (kg) (+/- .0005 kg) | 0.0265 | 0.0393 | 0.0522 | 0.6260 | | Mass of Stopper (kg) (+/- .0005 kg) | 0.0040 | 0.0040 | 0.0040 | 0.0037 | 0.0037 | Radius of String (m) (+/- .05 mm) | 0.5300 | 0.5150 | 0.5800 | 0.5840 | 0.5530 | Time for 20 Revolutions (s) (+/- .0005 s) | 10.0300 | 8.2650 | 7.7200 | 7.0800 | 6.6700 |

Processing Raw Data:

Conclusion:

It is hypothesized that the tension found in the string based on the mass of the washers would be equal to the tension derived from the formula for centripetal force, because it is the same string and therefore the same tension. Our findings supported this as the centripetal force formula gave us a tension that is very close to the tension found through the mass of the washers when you account for errors in measuring. The forces must have been equal, or the washers would have accelerated in either direction. As more washers were added the amount of time needed to complete twenty revolutions decreased fairly steadily as the tension increased. This was expected because the more washers you have the higher the tension will be, and the higher the velocity must be as so that the centripetal force and the force of gravity are equal. (Since velocity is distance divided by time the time needed to decrease for the velocity to increase.) Overall, accounting for the minute errors that occurred throughout the procedure, the expected results were attained. The tension produced by hanging a mass from a string was measured as being roughly equal to the tension produced from the centripetal acceleration of a stopper attached to the same string.

Evaluating Procedures:
The collected data was sufficient to address the research question and validate the hypothesis, however, the procedures were capable of giving slightly more accurate...

...
Centro de investigación y desarrollo de educación bilingüe (CIDEB)
PhysicsLAB REPORT
Uniform Rectilinear Motion
Teacher: Patrick Morris
Alejandra Castillejos Longoria
Group: 205
ID: 1663878
Abstract
The purpose of this experiment, was to prove the concept of the uniform linear motion by using an air track. With this, we demonstrated the impulse and change in momentum, the conservation of energy and the linear motion. We basically learnt to calculate the distance/time, acceleration/time, and velocity/time and graph it. The air track is also used to study collisions, both elastic and inelastic. Since there is very little energy lost through friction it is easy to demonstrate how momentum is conserved before and after a collision. According to the result, the velocity of the object in the air track was constant, it means that it didn’t have acceleration because it has constant velocity.
Introduction
First of all; we should understand what is linear motion. Linear motion is motion along a straight line, and can therefore be described mathematically using only one spatial dimension. Uniform linear motion with constant velocity or zero acceleration. The Air Track can be used to obtain an accurate investigation of the laws of motion. A car or glider travels on a cushion of air provided which reduces friction. Since the friction is all but removed the car will be moving at...

...
PhysicsLab Report
How does the length of a string holding a pendulum affect its oscillation?
Method
1. You will need the following apparatus: a pendulum, a piece of string, a clamp, a clamp stand and a timer.
2. Measure out 20cm and attach the metal ball.
3. Establish an angle and let the ball swing for 10 oscillations, timing it and stopping at the 10th one.
4. Write down your results.
5. Repeat steps 2-4 another 2 times so that your results are reliable.
6. Then change the length of the string 4 times, so that you get 5 different sets of results and for each time, repeat it 3 times.
DCP
Raw Data
Data Processing
Calculations:
To find the average of the time, I added all 3 values and then divided by three. For example:
(0.89+0.83+0.89)/3 = 0.87
I calculated the absolute uncertainty by considering the furthest point from the mean. For example:
1.31 (mean) – 1.25 (furthest point from the mean) = 0.06
Therefore my absolute uncertainty is +/- 0.06
I calculated the percentage uncertainty by dividing the absolute uncertainty by the mean and multiplying it by 100, like this:
(0.03/1.70) x100 = 0.18%
Source of uncertainties:
The uncertainties in the measurement came primarily from the equipment. Since we used a ruler that was divided into parts of 0.1cm, the readings were normally rounded up or down. The length of string was constant in all 3 times that we...

...trials were performed or if the class data were to be compared and averaged. Performing the experiments under a vacuum and frictionless setting would remove external variables that affect the data leading to more precise numbers. More accurate percent discrepancies illustrating laws of conservation can be achieved by adding more trials and including more sophisticated measuring tools. These techniques would lead to more accurate results to reduce any experimental errors and to better validate the concepts of energy and momentum conservation.
Conclusion
The purpose of the experiment was to investigate simple elastic and inelastic collisions to study the conservation of momentum and energy concepts. The objective of the lab was met since the validity of the Law of Conservation of Momentum was confirmed by determining the relationship of energy and momentum conservation between inelastic and elastic collisions by utilizing percent discrepancy calculations. The calculations state that the percent discrepancies for inelastic collisions were 8.75% and 19.23 % for the equal mass and unequal mass respectively. The percent discrepancies for the equal and unequal mass elastic collisions were 22.07% and 9.78 % respectively. Both of the percent discrepancies for the elastic collisions were close to the 10%-15% range which validates the concept of momentum conservation in inelastic elastic collisions. In regards to conservation of energy,...

... 9/16/14
Physics 01L
Density
Abstract
This experiment was conducted in order to determine the density of the Aluminum metal samples provided in the lab. Specific tools such as the vernier caliper and balance scale were used to measure and record the values found. Given that density is a measurement of mass over volume, both of these quantities would have to be determined experimentally, prior to proceeding with the calculation of the density, for each of the six subjects tested. Being as accurate and precise as possible, the data yielded a density that was similar to that of the accepted value for the density of aluminum. Taking averages of the measurements recorded by both partners may have introduced a variable for error. However, upon calculating the percent error of the results found, it was concluded that there was less than a three percent error, which supported the accuracy and credibility of the experiment.
Data
Table 1: Tabular Presentation
Aluminum
Diameter D1 (cm)
Diameter
D2 (cm)
Average
Diameter (cm)
Height
H1 (cm)
Height
H2 (cm)
Average Height (cm)
Mass (g)
Volume
(cm3)
1
1.27 cm
1.27 cm
1.27 cm
1.55 cm
1.548 cm
1.549 cm
5.6 g
V=1.96cm3
2
1.26 cm
1.266 cm
1.263 cm
2.64 cm
2.64 cm
2.64 cm
9.6 g
V=3.31 cm3
3
1.26 cm
1.266 cm
1.263 cm
4.726 cm
4.728 cm
4.727 cm
16.6 g
V=5.92 cm3
4
1.26 cm
1.268 cm
1.264 cm
6.218 cm
6.216 cm
6.217 cm
21.8 g
V=7.80 cm3
5...

...
Free Fall
Rachel Shea
Physics 131 Lab, QL
Hasbrouck 210
Sept. 21, 2014
Abstract
This experiment measures the study of motion by observing the force of gravity acting solely upon an object, and also measures reaction time. If an object is in free fall, the only force acting upon it is gravity. The object used in this experiment was a golf ball that provided some acceleration when dropped. A sensor positioned underneath a table recorded the golf ball’s pattern of motion, when dropped. The main objective of performing this experiment is to measure the velocity and position of the ball to eventually find the acceleration of free fall. A computer program called, DataStudio, was used to create a graph of position vs. time and a graph of velocity vs. time. The second part of the experiment involved randomly dropping a ruler and having your partner catch it to determine reaction time.
Questions
1. The parabolic curves open upward instead of downward because of the golf balls movement over time: where it is dropped from, to where it ends up. The ball begins close to the sensor, then drops to the ground, then bounces back up closer to sensor again, therefore the bounces correspond with the bottom curves of the parabola. If the data were collected from the floor then the curve would open downward. But because the sensor graphs the position from the sensor, the curve was upwards.
2.
-4572009207500
The slope of the velocity versus time graph...

...accident such as car crash, since the momentum changes instantly, the force becomes extremely great. Impulsive force is produced during the collision and it will cause severe damage to the car, and may also injure the passengers in it. 3 The passengers’ momentum can be stopped by objects in the car such as dashboard, side door, or windshield, however, it will cause serious injuries because the force would be very great. To increase the safety of the driver and the passengers, safety devices such as seatbelts, air bags, crumple zones, and etc. are introduced. Safety devices such as seatbelts, air bags, crumple zones and etc are designed to reduce the forces on the body if there is a collision. These safety devices are mostly made based on the physics principle of force and momentum, which is
This relationship says that if momentum is transferred over a longer period of time, the force involved is less. If the force of a collision can be reduced, then the chances that someone would get hurt in an accident are lower.4 Since momentum cannot be transformed to another form of energy, it is always conserved during any collision. The change in momentum is then a fixed quantity, and to lower the force, changes have to be made in the time of the collision.5 The time required for the car to stop in a collision have to be increased so that the forces that will impact the occupant will be lower, and they will be less likely to be hurt. If the time taken for the change...

...way in which the experiment was done. In actual fact though,
you may not even know that the error exists. So, we must avoid from adding external forces
during releasing the trolley since it will affect the measurement.
Conclusion:
The experiment conducted is succeed . According to the both of the graphs, the
acceleration of the trolley without load is faster than with load. The acceleration of the
trolley without load is 5 ms-2 while trolley with load is 3.6 ms-2.It have approached the
principle of the newton’s second law( a=m/f). The acceleration is inversely proportional to
the mass. Thus, the greater the mass, the less the acceleration.
References:
http://www.scribd.com/doc/94383213/Physics-Lab-Report
Physics reference book ;pearson;James S.Walker
http://www.digipac.ca/chemical/sigfigs/experimental_errors.htm...

...The Relationship Involving Acceleration, Net Force, and Mass
Giho Park
Purpose
The purpose of this lab investigation is to observe the relationship among the net force, mass, and acceleration of an object.
Hypothesis/Prediction
Part A
If the net force increases with a constant mass,
then the acceleration would increase,
because the force would push the object to increase the velocity.
Part B
If the mass of the cart increases with a constant net force,
then the acceleration would increase
because the greater inertia of the object would cause the acceleration to decrease.
Materials
ticker timer, ticker tape, cart, masking tape, one 2-m board, marker, ruler, spring scale, three 100-g masses, two 1.0-kg masses, string,
Procedure
Part A: Acceleration and Net Force
1. Verify that the equipment you intend to use is functioning properly.
2. Measure the mass of the cart and record it in the observation table.
3. Set up the apparatus so that the least net force will act on the cart. Allow the motion to occur and obtain the data required to find the acceleration α1.
4. Repeat the procedure with an increased net force. For example, you can transfer one of the 100-g masses from the cart to the string hanging over the pulley. This allows the mass of the system to remain constant. Determine the data for α2.
5. Repeat the procedure with the highest net force to determine the data for α3.
Part B: Acceleration...

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