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  • Published : March 9, 2013
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A River
About The poet
Attipat Krishnaswami Ramanujan was an Indian playwright, folklorist, and poet author who wrote in both English and Kannada. Ramanujan's work shows that cultural tradition in India is a conflict between the colonial English identity and post-colonial ethnic identities. As a poet, he is known for his avant-garde approach and atavistic poetic arguments rather than innate genius. His major works include: Hymns for the Drowning, Speaking of Siva, and A River etc. In 1976, he was awarded the "Padma Shri," and in 1983, the MacArthur Prize Fellowship. He also won posthumously Sahitya Akademi award.  Structure of the poem

The tone of the poem is based on sarcasm and irony. The structure of the poem is free verse. There is no rhyme scheme. There are four longer verse paragraphs, a shorter one and two single isolated lines. This kind of structural arrangement contributes to the effect of irony. It also helps to grasp the main points clearly. The language used in the poem is very simple on account of which the thought sequence of the poem is presented clearly. Theme and Summary of the poem

The poem “A River” written by A.K. Ramanujan is a satire on sensation loving poets who were indifferent to human suffering. He criticizes and mocks the poets for their callous and casual attitude towards human suffering.

The theme of the poem is that poetry is not only about love and romance but must also give expression to the sufferings of the people. Through this poem he tries to convey the message of sensitivity among the people and tries to inspire reform amongst us by opening our eyes to the horrors of the floods. In this poem, the poets talk about the river Vaikai on whose bank the city of Madurai stands. The peculiar thing, which appeals to the poets, is that the river presents two different spectacles in two different seasons. The poet gives a vivid picture of the river in the summer season when the river is almost empty. The sand ribs on the bed of the river are visible and the stones that lie on the bed of the river are also exposed. The bridge that stands over the river has rusty bars and requires repair. However the poet says that the other poets in the city only sang about the floods. He describes how people observed the river, very anxiously watching it rise inch by inch from time to time and how the stone steps of the bathing place are submerged. The further says that while the poets in the city spoke of the floods no one spoke about the floods that carried away with it three village houses, a pregnant woman and two cows named Gopi and Brinda. By this he implies that that both the groups of the poets are indifferent to human sorrow and suffering and that their poetry does not reflect the miseries of the human beings.

As You Like It
Historical Background
"As You Like It” is based loosely on Thomas Lodge's novel, Rosalynde: Euphues Golden Legacie. Lodge's novel was based on the poem, The Coke's Tale of Gamelyn, which was a pastoral romance. Shakespeare's version, while following the pattern used by Lodge, de-emphasizes some aspects central to Rosalynde and creates a new central focus. Shakespeare focuses attention on the difference between court life, which is dangerous and corrupt, and life in the Forest of Arden, which, though uncomfortable at times, is safe, peaceful, simple, and most importantly, free of corrupt men and politics. In addition to adding the conflict of court versus country life, Shakespeare introduces a few naturalistic characters-Jacques, Touchstone, and Audrey, to bring some realism and irony to the play in order to undercut the pastoral romance's unrelenting lightness. Act I as opening act: Introduction of the Plot, Theme and Major Characters Shakespeare has used Act I to give the audience some background information regarding the setting and atmosphere of the play. This Act introduces all major characters- Rosalind, Celia, Oliver, Orlando and the two dukes. The opening...
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