Chapter 3 Concept Questions
1. Physical activity is muscular movement of the body that results in significant energy expenditure above the rising metabolism. Exercise is structured physical activity that focuses on improving or maintains physical capacity. Physical fitness is a developed physical capacity that enables people to perform routine physical tasks with vigor, participate in a variety of physical activities, and reduce their risk for multiple, inactivity-related chronic diseases. Physical activity refers to moving around using our own muscle power. Exercise refers to virtually all physical training and sports activities. 2. Health-related physical fitness includes three fundamental components, cardiorespiratory or aerobic fitness, musculoskeletal or muscular fitness, and body composition. Cardiorespiratory fitness lowers risk of dying prematurely, especially from heart disease and stroke. Musculoskeletal fitness increases bone density, muscle mass, and joint health and thereby lowers the risk of osteoporosis, low back pain, and degenerative joint condition. Maintenance of healthy weight (body composition) through physical activity and good nutrition protects against obesity, diabetes, and related diseases including heart disease, arthritis, and some cancers. 3. The recommended exercise frequency is at least three and up to seven days per week. Consensus guidelines recommended engaging in a minimum of 150 minutes a week of moderate-intensity, or 75 minutes a week of vigorous-intensity of aerobic activity, or an equivalent combination. The most common aerobic activities are walking, running, cycling, and swimming. 4. Muscular strength is a muscle or muscle group’s maximal capacity to exert force against an external resistance that is the most weight you can lift one time, such as with the arm curl for the biceps muscle or the leg extension for the quadriceps. Muscular endurance refers to the muscle’s ability to sustain a submaximal force...
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