Pgce Foundations of Teaching and Learning

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Foundations of teaching and learning

“Teaching is a bit like giving learners a toolkit of skills” (Geoff Petty 2009)

I am going to deliver a lesson to my students, which will include the three main schools of learning, Behaviourism, Cognitivism and Humanism. I will incorporate these ways of learning into my lesson plans to ensure my students are offered a range of learning strategies.

“The behaviourist learning theory suggests that we learn by receiving a stimulus that provokes a response. So long as the response is reinforced in some way that response will be repeated.”

(Reece and Walker 2007)

I think behaviourism is important within the classroom as it is controlled Education, where the teacher takes control of the class and the environment that the students are in. Behaviourism is the educational theory that is based on the underlying ideology that the environment has direct influence on behaviour. Aims and objectives must be shown at the beginning of the class, to ensure the students are aware of what is expected of them. Reinforcement should be used to strengthen behaviour that you want to encourage. Students should be rewarded immediately so it gives the student motivation and confidence to move on to the next stage. Rewards can be offered in a variety of ways e.g. praise, letting them take part in something they enjoy doing, and should be used often when starting a new subject. To ensure students are kept motivated.

Behaviourists look for rewards from others such as teachers, family and peers etc.… Some behaviour is inappropriate so a punishment is given to stop that particular behaviour occurring again. People learn by copying from others, for example, performing a demonstration (you are the model) students will learn behaviours from the model.

Within my lesson plan I have covered behaviourism with discussing previous background knowledge of subject matter so I am able to gain the required information to move on to the next stage and by applying praise to give them confidence to be able to move on to the next stage. I will take control of the class; the environment within the class will be relaxed and non-threatening. I will offer encouragement and appraisal throughout my lesson, before the end of the lesson I have arranged practical session as a reward.

“The Cognitivist school believes that learning by doing, and asking students challenging questions, will help students make their own sense of what they era studying, and enable them to make use of their learning in real life” (Geoff Petty2009)

The Cognitivist approach to learning focuses on students and how they gain and store knowledge. It looks into how students interpret information given to them and what technique is best for them to use to understand it. The information that is given to the students must be understood to ensure leaning is taking place. It should be presented in a step by step fashion and goals should be in place for each stage, Feedback is essential and should be given out promptly to ensure learning has taken place before moving on to the next stage.

There are three modes of learning

• The Enactive mode – learning by doing
• The Iconic mode – imagery- depends on visual senses • The symbolic mode – using codes to learn

This approach should be used in an attempt to promote learning using the cognitive structure. Students learn more when they have a greater understanding of the knowledge within the subject matter. This information is taken and added onto existing information, which is known as deep learning.

Deep learning is where new learning makes a connection to old learning so you are able to build on knowledge, Deep learning is good learning; students should be taught a way that encourage them to adopt a way of learning, so they have a...
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