Personal Protective Equipment in Safety and Health

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PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT

Protection of workers against occupational hazards can be achieved by the following order of priority :

1.Elimination
2.Engineering Control
3.Administrative Control
4.Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)

ELIMINATION

The presence of hazards that can cause physical and health effect to workers can be eliminated by : Substituting hazardous tool
Machinery
Chemical substances and the process that are less hazardous

ENGINEERING CONTROL

If elimination is not possible the hazard should be guarded or isolated from the worker. This involves imposing a barrier (physical barrier or distance) between the hazard and the worker. Local and General Ventilation is used to dilute or divert toxic contaminants from the workers.

ADMINISTRATIVE CONTROL
Safe operating procedures (SOP), Shift work and training of workers can reduce the risk to the workers handling chemicals.

PERSONAL PROTECTION EQUIPMENT

If it is not possible to reduce chemical hazards to an acceptable level, by either elimination or guarding/isolation, the worker should be given certain protective equipment to prevent contact of the hazards with the body. This equipment forms a barrier between the toxic and the route of entry. Failure of equipment means immediate exposure to the hazard. Thus, personal protective equipment should not be regarded as a primary means to control hazards but rather as a supplement to other types of control measure.

Injury will occur if hazards come into contact with our body, the degree of injury are depends on the magnititute of hazards and susceptibility of person.

Respirator - designed to absorb the contaminant that come into contact by inhalation Protective clothing, gloves, apron, goggles and shoes – design to prevent absorption of chemical splash to the skin Safety helmet-to prevent from the sharp object falling on the head

The effectiveness and efficiency of protection depends on proper use, maintenance and replacement of the PPE. If the PPE not used properly it can be more dangerous than not using as the worker would think that he is protected but in actual practice he is not protected.

Factor to consider in the selection of PPE

PPE should be carefully selected. The following criteria should be met when choosing PPE

Give adequate protection against the specific hazard i. e right type and model Fit , minimum weight cause minimum discomfort and , if with attachment , it should be easily fitted and removed. Not restrict movement or sensory perception essential to the job Be easily worn and the eight to be supported by body

Be durable and harmonious to the wear1`s culture and religion Not introduce additional hazards
Be made to acceptable standards
Be maintenance fee if possible, if maintenance is required , should be easily maintained Be replaced when necessary

1. RESPIRATORY PROTECTION DEVICE

Used of respirators will prevent the entry of chemicals into the body by inhalation It is frequently used in industry where other forms of control are not practicable Type of respiratory protection :

Are basically design to give protection against one or more of the following .

Contaminants in particulate forms
Contaminants in gaseous forms
Deficiency of oxygen

With Full face mask or Half face mask

Powered - air is drawn through by a fan
Non powered – air is drawn through by wearer inhalation

Particulate filter come in various classes depending on their filtering efficiency.

Gas filters are available for specific gases (e.g organic vapours, hydrogen, cyanide)

Supplied air respirators (SARS)

The air is supplied is not pressurized. It can be supplied by use of a fan , compressed air source or wearer inhalation. .

The air supplied is pressurized and comes from a compressor or gas cylinder via an air line . Pressure is reduced prior...
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