Personal Observation

Only available on StudyMode
  • Download(s) : 380
  • Published : May 13, 2013
Open Document
Text Preview
Technology upgrade
The objective here is to reduce meat contamination by establishing a Microbial lab within each meat factory in United States. This method will allow us to test animal intestine to see if they are contaminated by bacteria. Bacteria can be difficult to sample and analyze, for many reasons. Natural bacteria levels in streams can vary significantly; bacteria conditions are strongly correlated with rainfall, and thus comparing wet and dry weather bacteria data can be a problem; many analytical methods have a low level of precision yet can be quite complex; and absolutely sterile conditions are required to collect and handle samples. The primary equipment decision to make when sampling for bacteria is what type and size of sample container you will use. Once you have made that decision, the same, straightforward collection procedure is used regardless of the type of bacteria being monitored. Collection procedures are described under "How to Collect Samples" below. It is critical when monitoring bacteria that all containers and surfaces with which the sample will come into contact be sterile. Containers made of either some form of plastic or Pyrex glass are acceptable to EPA. However, if the containers are to be reused, they must be sterilized using heat and pressure. The containers can be sterilized by using an autoclave, which is a machine that sterilizes containers with pressurized steam. If using an autoclave, the container material must be able to withstand high temperatures and pressure. Plastic containers either high-density polyethylene or polypropylene might be preferable to glass from a practical standpoint because they will better withstand breakage. In any case, be sure to check the manufacturer's specifications to see whether the container can withstand 15 minutes in an autoclave at a temperature of 121°C without melting. (Extreme caution is advised when working with an autoclave.) Disposable, sterile, plastic Whirl-pak® bags are used by a number of programs. The size of the container will depend on the sample amount needed for the bacteria analysis method you choose and the amount needed for other analyses. There are two basic methods for analyzing water samples for bacteria: 1. The membrane filtration method involves filtering several different-sized portions of the sample using filters with a standard diameter and pore size, placing each filter on a selective nutrient medium in a petri plate, incubating the plates at a specified temperature for a specified time period, and then counting the colonies that have grown on the filter. This method varies for different bacteria types (variations might include, for example, the nutrient medium type, the number and types of incubations, etc.). 2. The multiple-tube fermentation method involves adding specified quantities of the sample to tubes containing a nutrient broth, incubating the tubes at a specified temperature for a specified time period, and then looking for the development of gas and/or turbidity that the bacteria produce. The presence or absence of gas in each tube is used to calculate an index known as the Most Probable Number (MPN). Given the complexity of the analysis procedures and the equipment required, field analysis of bacteria is not recommended. Bacteria can either be analyzed by the volunteer at a well-equipped lab or sent to a state-certified lab for analysis. If you send a bacteria sample to a private lab, make sure that it is certified by the state for bacteria analysis. Consider state water quality labs, university and college labs, private labs, wastewater treatment plant labs, and hospitals. You might need to pay these labs for analysis. This manual does not address laboratory methods because several bacteria types are commonly monitored and the methods are different for each type. For more information on laboratory methods, refer to the.

How to Collect Samples

The procedures for collecting and analyzing samples...
tracking img