Parliamentary

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Parliamentary System of the Government
Parliamentarism is the most widely adopted system of government, and it seems appropriate to refer to British Parliamentary experience in particular because it is the British system which has provided an example for a great many other countries.Great Britain is regarded as mother country of the parliamentary executive. A parliamentary system, or parliamentarism,is distinguished by the head of government being dependent on the direct or indirect support of the parliament, often expressed through a vote of confidence. Hence, there is no clear cut separation of powers between the legislative and executive branches of government. Parliamentary systems usually have a clear differentiation between the head of government and the head of state. The term parliamentary system does not mean that a country is ruled by different parties in coalition with each other. Such multi-party arrangements are usually the product of a voting system known as proportional representation. The executive is typically a cabinet, and headed by a prime minister who is considered the head of government. The prime minister and the ministers of the cabinet typically have their background in the parliament and may remain members therof while serving in cabinet. The leader of the leading party, or group of parties, in the parliament is often appointed as the prime minister. In many countries, the cabinet, or single member therof, can be removed by the parliament through the vote of confidence. In addition, the executive often can dissolve the parliament and call extra ordinary elections. The parliamentary executive is most effective when supported by a stable majority, which is most likely to be found in countries having a strong two party system. Many countries that have instituted the cabinet system have been hampered in their operation by their multiparty systems, which have created indecisive and unstable cabinets. Many countries have chosen the parliamentary system in preference to the presidential system, which they feared might become dictatorial; yet their failure to operate the cabinet system effectively has in many instances led, precisely to dictatorship. In most parliamentary systems, the head of state is primarily a ceremonial position, often a monarch or president, retaining duties that aren´t politically divisive, such as appointment of civil service. In many parliamentary systems, the head if state may have reserve power which is usable in a crisis. In most cases however, such powers are (either by convention or by constitutional rule) only exercised upon the advice and approval of the head the government. The secret of the successful functioning of parliamentary democracy is a developed party system. "The purpose of the party in parliament, "says W. Ivor Jenings, "is to support the government in carrying out the party policy; or, if the party in opposition, criticize the government in so far as its fail to carry out the policy of the party in opposition . The parliament is attempting to ensure ever-increasing levels of accountability of the government, through an elaborate committee system. It already has to its credit creation of a regime of laws to provide equity and social justice to the people. The Parliament, and under its lead, the state legislatures have passed legislation to secure for the citizens_ men and women equally adequate means of livelihood; equal pay for equal work; protection against abuse and exploitation of workers´ economic necessity; and the protection of their health and strength as also of children of tender age and youth, against exploitation and moral and material abandonment. A parliamentary government, through directly responsible to the assembly, is not indirectly responsible to the electorate. The government as a whole is not directly elected by the voters but is appointed indirectly amongst the representatives whom they elect to the assembly. Presidential System of...
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