Topics: Wine, Oenology, Yeast Pages: 87 (12120 words) Published: April 19, 2013


Wine is an alcoholic beverage made from fermented grape juice by utilizing yeast as biocatalysts. Wines made from other fruits are always named accordingly by attaching the name of the fruit with wine.

1.1 Classification of wines:
1. Still or Natural Wine - are what one sometimes refer to as table wines. They are called natural or still wine because the method of making them is mostly done by nature. Grapes are squeezed and ferment naturally without anything added on it. Table wines are red, white or pink.

2. Aromatic Wines - are made the same way as the natural wines, but during fermentation aromatics are added. Example of aromatic wine is Vermouth.

3. Fortified Wines - this wine is called fortified because additional ingredients like sugar and alcohol are added to make it stronger. Example is Sherries. The method of making Sherry is called "Solera system," which means adding old wine to young wine.

4. Sparkling Wines - this wine is considered king of all beverages. They are made sparkling by having a second fermentation inside the bottle. Example of this is Champagne.

On basis of colour of wines:
•Red - called rouge, which may range anywhere from purple to dark red to burgundy.
•White - called blanc, in varying clarity depending on the grape variety and aging process.
•Pink - called rose, ranging from pink, salmon




Archaeological evidence suggests that the earliest known production of wine, made by fermenting grapes, took place from the late Neolithic or early Chalcolithic, possibly as early as the sixth millennium BC, between the Caucasus and the Middle East, with clues of winemaking in different sites dated from 6000 BC in Georgia,5000 BC in Iran,and 4100 BC in Armenia.During an extensive gene-mapping project in 2006, archaeologists analyzed the heritage of more than 110 modern grape cultivars, narrowing their origin to a region in Georgia, where wine residues were also discovered on the inner surfaces of 8,000-year-old ceramic storage jars.Chemical analysis of 7,000-year-old pottery shards indicated early winemaking in the Neolithic village of Hajji FiruzTepe in Iran's Zagros Mountains Other notable areas of wine production have been discovered in Greece and date back to 4500 BC


3.1 Red Wine Styles
Red wines are made into a variety of styles. The stylistic differences are based on differences in wine characteristics such as grape variety, color, flavor, body, mouthfeel, and aging potential. The styles range from simple, fruity, fresh, light colored blushes and rosés to complex, full-bodied, rich and dark red, with long aging potential. Many factors such as a variety, soil, climate, growing conditions, and viticultural practices influence the fruit composition, and therefore, the style of wine that can be produced. In addition to fruit composition, winemaking techniques also play an important role in determining the wine style.

Many varieties are available for red wine production. The wines are usually produced as varietals, or as blends containing several varieties. A list of commonly used red wine varieties is given in table below

( Table 3.1.a-Red wine varieties)

Varieties from the Vinifera group are most widely used for winemaking. In regions whereVinifera grapes are not grown, French hybrids, Labrusca, and other varieties are often used. Among the Vinifera group, Cabernet Sauvignon alone, or in combination with Merlot and/or Cabernet Franc is used in premium red wine production. Pinot noir, the famous grape of Burgundy, makes excellent red wine. When grown in other parts of the world, the wine does not always...
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