Wine is an alcoholic beverage produced through the partial or total fermentation of grapes, other fruits and plants such as berries, apples, cherries, dandelions elder berries , palm and rice can also be fermented. Grapes belong to the botanical family vitaceae of which there are many species. The species that are most widely used in wine production are Vitislabrusca and specially Vitisvinefara, which has long been the most widely used wine grape throughout the world.
The theory that wine was discovered by accident is most likely correct because wine grapes contain all the necessary ingredients for wine including pulp, juice, and seeds that posses all the acids, sugars, tannins, minerals and vitamins that are found in wine.
Wine making or vinification is the production of wine. The cultivation of wine grapes for the production of wine is called “viticulture”. Harvested during the fall, wine grapes may range in colour, from pale yellow to hearty green, to ruby red.
Wine can be made in home and in small, medium, or large wineries by using similar methods. Wine is made in a variety of flavours with varying degrees of sweetness and dryness as well as alcoholic strength and quality. Generally, the strength, colour, and flavor of the wine are controlled during the fermentation process.
Wine is characterized by colour: white, rose, and red. Its alcohol content ranges from 10% to 14%. Wine types can be divided into four broad categories; table wines, sparkling wines, fortified wines, and aromatic wines. Table wines include a range of red, white and rose wines. Sparkling wines include champagne and other “bubbly” wines. Aromatic wines contain plants, fruit and flowers. Moreover, fortified wines are table wines with brandy or other alcohol added.
The name of the wine almost invariably is derived from one of the three sources. The name of the principal grape from which is made, the geographical area from which it comes, or in the case of the traditionally finest wines form a particular vine yard or parcel soil. The year in which a wine is made is only printed on bottles that have aged for two or more years; those aged less are not considered worthy a date. Wine years are known as “vintages” or “vintage years”. While certain wines are considered good or bad depending on the year they were produced, this can vary by locality.
In general, red wines are supposed to ages seven to ten years before being sold. Because additional aging does not enhance white and rose wines, they are usually aged from only one to four years before being sold. And since the quality of wines depends on proper aging, older wines are generally more expensive than younger ones. Other factors, however, can affect the quality of wine, and proper aging, does not always ensure quality. Other factors affecting quality include the grapes themselves, when the grapes are picked, proper care of the grapes, the fermentation process, as well as other aspects of wine production.
Vineyardists inspect sample clusters of wine grapes with a refract meter to determine if grapes are ready to be picked. The refract meter is a small hand – held device that allows you to accurately check the amount of sugar in the grapes. If the grapes are ready for picking, a mechanical harvester gathers and funnels the grapes into a field hopper, or mobile storage container.
Some mechanical harvester is grope crushers mounted on machinery, allowing vineyard workers to gather the grapes and press them at the same time. The result is that vineyards can deliver newly crushed grapes, called must to wineries eliminating the need for crushing at the winery. The most common bottle sizes are the half bottle, the imperial print, the standard bottle and the gallon bottle or jug. Most red and rose wines are coloured to keep light from aging the wine further after they are on the market.
While viticulture has remained much the same for centuries, new technology...