Nowadays, job satisfaction is one of the successful key for managers in any organization. It seems that there is a relationship between job satisfaction and employee productivity. In my literature review below, I will mention some related theory and my opinion about this association. 2.History
a.Some related key concept:
Job satisfaction has been defined as a pleasurable emotional state resulting from the appraisal of one’s job; an affective reaction to one’s job; and an attitude towards one’s job. Weiss (2002) has argued that job satisfaction is an attitude but points out that researchers should clearly distinguish the objects of cognitive evaluation which are affect emotion, beliefs and behaviors. It means that if people want to increase job satisfaction, they must take into account their feelings, their beliefs and also their behaviors. Productivity: The organization’s output of products and services divided by its inputs. b.Studies and theories
There are some studies and theories that study about job satisfaction and the relationship between job satisfaction and employee productivity such as Hawthorne studies, Taylorism, Edwin A. Locke’s Range of Affect Theory, Dispositional Theory or Two-Factor Theory. In my literature review, I just summarize the below theories: Hawthorne studies:
This is one of the biggest introductions to the study of job satisfaction. This study is a series of experiments on worker productivity, begun in 1924 at the Hawthorne plant of Western Electric Company in Illinois. The major part of this work involved four experimental and three control groups and there are five different “tests’ were conducted at all. Under the guidance of two Harvard professors, Elton Mayo and Fritz Roethlisberger, the Relay Assembly Test Room (RATR) studies lasted until 1933 which found the effects of various conditions (most notably illumination) on workers’ productivity. These studies clearly showed that new changes in work conditions temporarily increase productivity (which we called the Hawthorne Effect). Latterly, they found a new result, the increase in productivity does not only come from the new working conditions, but also from the knowledge of being observed of employees. This finding provided strong and clear evidence that people work for purposes other than money, which set another way for researchers to find out the other factors that affect job satisfaction and employee productivity. However, there are some recent re-analyses of the experiments that have revealed a reverse result. It stated that money may well have been the single most important factor (Greenwood et al. 1983). This new revelation shows that money mattered a great deal at Hawthorne, but it was not recognized at the time of the experiments. Then it was felt that the factor that best explained increased output was “human relations”, as employees productivity increased considerably when they are under a good and positive manner by their managers. To be historically accurate, money was probably the best explanation for the increase in productivity, but at the time of Hawthorne studies, experimenters believed that human relations is the explanation for the rise in output. Despite the inaccurate of interpretation of the data, it can be concluded that the Hawthorne studies support for the human relations movement, a movement in management thinking and practice that emphasized satisfaction of employees’ basic needs as the key to increased worker productivity. Two-factor theory (or Motivator-Hygiene Theory)
This is a very popular theory of motivation which developed by Frederick Herzberg (Herzberg, 1968). Two-factor theory attempts to explain satisfaction and motivation in the workplace. Herzberg interviewed hundreds of workers about times when they were highly motivated to work and when they were dissatisfied and unmotivated in their job. From his finding, he concluded that satisfaction and dissatisfaction are driven by...