International Journal of Training and Development 9:1 ISSN 1360-3736
Organizational interventions inﬂuencing employee career development preferred by different career success orientations Namhee Kim
This study explores what Korean employees prefer as organizational interventions that inﬂuence their career development, according to their personal interpretation of career success. A quantitative sample survey was designed from a Korean wireless communications company using a survey instrument. The ﬁndings of this study contributed to the validation of theoretical discussions on the association of individuals and organizational career development interventions, implying that organizations need to design their career mobility systems or performance incentive systems in accordance with employees’ career orientations.
Market changes often necessitate substantial transformation in organizations via reorganizing, restructuring or downsizing (Gutteridge et al., 1993). The characteristics of employees have changed as well. One of the biggest issues facing organizations is the increasing diversity of the modern workforce. Determining how to manage and develop today’s workforce effectively from the perspective of career development has become a critical issue at the organizational level. Companies must ﬁnd ways to match organizational goals and needs with those of individuals, but employees’ internal orientations are often left largely uninvestigated
r Research Fellow, Korean Women’s Development Institute, 1-363 Bulkwang-dong, Eunpyong-gu, Seoul 122-707, Korea. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org © Blackwell Publishing Ltd. 2005, 9600 Garsington Road, Oxford OX4 2DQ, UK and 350 Main St., Malden, MA 02148, USA.
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in the design and implementation of organizational interventions. This study explores Korean employees’ perspectives on organizational interventions that inﬂuence their career development, according to personal deﬁnitions of career success. Answers to this research question will help organizations design and implement more effective employee career development policies and activities.
Theories of career orientation
Traditional career theories deﬁned success in terms of extrinsic or objective factors with visible metrics, such as salary, promotions or status (e.g. Gattiker & Larwood, 1989; Jaskolka et al., 1985). Therefore, hierarchical advancement, larger income and increasing recognition and respect from others typically indicated success at work. On the other hand, some researchers have investigated careers from an internal, subjective perspective. Schein examined individuals’ subjective ideas about work life and their roles within it (van Maanen & Schein, 1977). He identiﬁed the concept of a ‘career anchor’, which is an occupational self-concept or self-knowledge that ‘serves to guide, constrain, stabilize and integrate the person’s career’ (Schein, 1978: 127). Schein (1978) identiﬁed ﬁve types of career anchors: managerial competence, autonomy, security, technical/functional competence, and entrepreneurial creativity. Later, three more types were added: service/dedication to a cause, pure challenge, and life style. Delong (1982) proposed replacing the term ‘career anchor’ with ‘career orientation’, meaning the capacity to select certain features of an occupation for investment according to one’s motives, interests and competencies. He identiﬁed three new types of career orientation (identity, service, and variety), in addition to Schein’s (1978) ﬁve original career anchors. Driver (1979, 1980, 1982) studied business executives and staff specialists in a variety of companies, identifying four ‘career concepts’ (transitory, steady-state, linear, and spiral) from self-perceptions...