Differentiate between formal and informal groups. Formal groups are those defined by the organization’s structure, with designated work assignments establishing tasks. In formal groups, the behaviors that one should engage in are stipulated by and directed toward organizational goals. Informal groups are alliances that are neither formally structured nor organizationally determined. These groups are natural formations in the work environment that appear in response to the need for social contact. (Pages 123-124)
Differentiate the terms role identity, role perception, and role expectation. There are certain attitudes and actual behaviors consistent with a role, and they create the role identity. People have the ability to shift roles rapidly when they recognize that the situation and its demands clearly required major changes. One’s view of how one is supposed to act in a given situation is a role perception. Based on an interpretation of how we believe we are supposed to behave, we engage in certain types of behavior. Role expectations are defined as how others believe you should act in a given situation. How you behave is determined to a large extent by the role defined in the context in which you area Acting. (Pages 125-126)
Explain the psychological contract. The psychological contract is the unwritten agreement that exists between employees and their employer. This sets out mutual expectations – what management expects from workers, and vice versa. Management is expected to treat employees justly, provide acceptable working conditions, clearly communicate what is a fair day’s work, and give feedback on how well the employee is doing. Employees are expected to respond by demonstrating a good attitude, following directions, and showing loyalty to the organization. (Page 126)
What are norms? Norms are acceptable standards of behavior that are shared by the group’s members. Norms tell members...