Cross Culture Analysis

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

(1) Introduction……………………………………………………………………………2

(2) Cross- cultural Analysis……………………………………………………………….2

(3) Aims of cross-cultural analysis………………………………………………………..2

(4) Hofstede and his 5 dimensions………………………………………………………...3 (4.1) Limitations of Hofstede’s model…………………………………………………………..4

(5) Trompenaars and Hampden-Turner model…………………………………………..4 (5.1) Limitations of Trompenaars and Turner model…………………………………………4

(6) European Cultural Diversity……………………………………………………………5

(7) Conclusion……………………………………………………………………………….6

(8) Bibliography……………………………………………………………………..7

(9) Web References…………………………………………………………………………..7

(A) Critical review of cross-cultural models

(1)Introduction

Culture has played an important role in the evolution of humans enabling them to adapt the environment to their own needs instead of depending solely on natural selection to achieve success in all walks of life. Culture typically is made of customs, ideas beliefs, customs, codes, techniques, tools, taboos, symbols, rituals and ceremonies. Every society has created its own culture which is unique to its society.

Culture is characterised mainly of three components which are explained as below:

Values – Ideas which are considered important in life can be termed as values. Norms – Different people behave differently in various situations. Norms can be understood as the expectations of how people react to these situations. Artefacts - Artefacts are manufactured by men who reflect the culture’s values and norms.  

(2) Cross- cultural Analysis

In 19th century, renowned anthropologists Edward Burnett Tylor and Lewis H Morgan have performed first cross-cultural analysis. Both Anthropology and Social Anthropology have made significant progress from the stages of Victorian England’s lower savagery to civilization. The concept of culture can be understood as a response against to those Western concepts and according to the anthropologists, culture is embedded in human nature. All people irrespective of the location and regions have the ability to categorise experiences, understand them by decoding using symbols and communication effectively.

Several fields such as Sociology, Psychology, Communication and Anthropology have contributed to the creation of main theories of cross cultural communication. These theories are primarily based on the value differences among several cultures that are spread all over the world. Some of the important researchers who contributed to this field include Fons Trompenaars, Edward T. Hall, Shalom Schwartz, Geert Hofstede Edward Burnett Tylor and Lewis H Morgan and Clifford Geertz.

(3) Aims of cross-cultural analysis

The main aim of cross cultural communication is to understand the responses of different people from varied cultural backgrounds in different situations. Some guidelines are produced to decipher these differences and help them to better communicate with one another.

According to Alvesson, M. (1993), Cultural Perspectives on Organisations, 1992, Members of a group who share a particular culture can be understood and interpreted using some functions. The group can be of different sizes. It can be a small group in a village, or as big as a continent. Though the responses of the members of these groups can be understood as a whole depending on their culture, it further depends on the individual’s personality. The expressions of culture-resultant response can also depend on their own experience from life and the upbringing of that particular individual. The aims of cross cultural analysis are to harness the utilitarian function of culture as a means for human adaptation and better communication.

Cross-cultural management can be understood as a subset of International management focusing on cultural clashes. The conflicts and miscommunication leads to differences in the cultures and cross cultural management aims to develop...
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