Organizational Behavior Issue

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Organizational Behavior Issue
Table of Contents
Historical Background of Organizational Behavior.
Elements of Organizational Behavior.
Models of Organizational Behavior.
Social Systems and Individualization.
Organization Development.
Quality of Work Life.

1. Introduction.
Organizational Behavior is the study and use of knowledge about how people in general, and individuals and groups in particular, act in organizations. It does this by using a system approach in this case. It explains relationships between people and organizations in terms of the person, the entire group, all the organization, and all the social system. Its objective is to establish better relationships by achieving human purposes, organizational purposes, and social purposes. Organizational behavior includes many topics, such as human behavior, change, leadership, teams, etc.

2. Historical Background of Organizational Behavior.
Taylorism and Scientific Management
The Industrial Revolution that began from the development of steam power and the founding of big factories in the late Eighteenth Century result in great alterations in the production of fabrics and other products. The factories that developed created great difficulties to organization that had not existed before. Governing these new factories and then new entities like railways with the requirement of governing large flows of material, staff, and information over great distances caused the need for some ways of dealing with the recent management problems. The most significant of those who began to found a science of management was Frederic Taylor. He was one of the first who tried to analyze human behavior at a work place systematically. His sample was the machine with inexpensive, interchangeable details, each of which executes only one certain function. Taylor tried to do to great organizations what workers have done to machines. Just as machine details are easily interchangeable, inexpensive, and passive, so should people be the same in the machine sample of organizations. Taylor tried to make a science for every aspect of work and restrict conduct ways facing employee. Taylor looked at interplay of human characteristics, social milieu, objective, and physical milieu, capacity, speed, duration, and price. The overall purpose was to remove human alteration. The outcomes were serious. Efficiency under Taylorism went up greatly. New departments appeared such as personnel, industrial engineering, and quality check. There was also increase in middle management as there developed a separation of planning from controlling. Reasonable rules replaced test and mistake; management became formalized and effectively grew. Certainly, this did not happen without opposition. First the old group of managers opposed the fact that management was a science to be explored not something that was born with. After that of course, many employees opposed what some thought the "dehumanization of work." To be just, Taylor also studied problems such as lassitude and security and urged management to learn the relation between job breaks, and the length of the work day and efficiency and persuaded many companies that the careful performance of breaks and a shorter day could increase efficiency. However, the industrial worker with his stop watch and clip-board, standing over you measuring every little part of the work and one's motions became a hated person and caused to much sabotage and group opposition. The basic elements of scientific management are popular nowadays. While a portrait of a factory of about 1900 might look like as something out of Dickens, one should not think the basic notions of scientific management have been forgotten. They have merely been changed and improved. While many people consider bureaucracy in negative notions, this sample in its pure type was a dramatic improvement over the last sample of organization which was a feudal sample based on...
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