Organizational Behavior

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INTRODUCTION
Change management is the process by which an organization gets to its future state, its vision. While traditional planning processes delineate the steps on the journey, change management attempts to facilitate that journey. Therefore, creating change starts with creating a vision for change and then empowering individuals to act as change agents to attain that vision. The empowered change management agent’s need plans that provide total systems approach, are realistic, and are future oriented. Change management encompasses the effective strategies and programs to enable those change agents to achieve the new vision.

I. OBJECTIVES

At the end of this topic, you should be able to:
* Define management and differentiate between the art and science of management * Review the basic concept and functions of organizational management * Describe the major phases of the development of organizational management * Present the concept of the work setting as a total system II. CONTENT

Change involves a sequence of organizational processes that occurs over time. Lewin (1951) suggests this process typically requires three steps: unfreezing, moving, and refreezing.

UNFREEZING

Unfreezing might be accomplished by introducing new information that points out inadequacies in the current state or by decreasing the strength of current values, attitudes, and behaviors. Crises often stimulate unfreezing. Examples of crises are demographic shifts in population, a sudden increase in employee turnover, a costly lawsuit, and an unexpected strike. Unfreezing may occur without crises as well. Climate surveys, financial data, and enrollment projections can be used to determine problem areas in an organization and initiate change to alleviate problems before crises erupt.

MOVING

Once the organization is unfrozen, it can be changed by moving. This step usually involves the development of new values, attitudes, and behaviors through internalization, identification, or change in structure. Some changes may be minor and involve a few members—such as changes in recruitment and selection procedures—and others may be major, involving many participants. Examples of the latter include a new evaluation system, restructuring of jobs and duties performed by staff, or restructuring a department or entire organization, which necessitates relocating staff to different sites within the organization.

REFREEZING

The final step in the change process involves stabilizing the change at a new quasi-stationary equilibrium, which is called refreezing. Changes in organizational culture, changes in staff norms, changes in organization policy, or modifications in organizational structure often accomplish this.

Kurt Lewin's Change Model in Change Management Implementations

The challenge when reviewing a change management model like this is being able to picture yourself implementing it a real world situation, using the change model in your business today. One of the purposes of showing the Continental Airlines video above is that I hope that is can be useful and helpful for you in that way.

If we were together now working on a project in your workplace how could we best use this approach? As you read through this site, I hope you can think about what is in this change management video and how it could apply in your business.

An important observation and reminder from this video is that to begin the change management process you must begin by creating and awareness and an understanding for why the change must take place. Build awareness for the pressure for change to come to the surface.

Unfreeze

How do we unfreeze an organization? Typically a provocative problem or event needs to be presented to people to get them to recognize the need for change and to search for new solutions. This problem or event is the catalyst that creates the pressure for movement of attitude or thinking, and for change to...
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