Operations of Airlines

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“The world commercial airline industry is one of the most diverse, dynamic and perplexing in the world ” (Globale Airline Industry Program). The airports are exceptionally complex facilities and highly renowned for the variety of services and resources it provides to both the airlines and its users. Airlines and airports are inextricably intertwined together and none of them can survive without the other. The aviation industry is growing at an exponential rate. The demands for an effective and efficient ground handling system became the fundamental standards in successful aircraft operation and increase in airline image. The directives adopted by the 15 member states are divided into three general models, US, EU and third party models. In the US model airlines independently provide ground handling services to their airlines and manage airport terminals activities. In the other hand EU model, airports are heavily involved in ground handling services for airlines. The third party ground handling service is provided by other agencies usually contracted by airports along with supervision from airport operators. Even though contracting a third party into operation is in itself a challenge; operators have to make sure that those contracting agencies comply with ground handling standards and provide a top quality service continuously. Achieving those standards is one thing but when it comes to employment, operators have to either assume or take the necessary measures to insure handlers come with quality and an ideal price that would match their serviceability. Ground handling services are divided in to two major parts terminal services and airside services.

As airlines grow in size and their flight route operations became international, airports started to play a major critical role in providing facilities and services to accommodate long and short haul flights. As airlines are the most important customers for airports, they made mutual contract agreements to join forces and provide flawless services to the passengers and air cargo linking them through vast transportation network around the world. Passenger travel became more and more frequent the past 20 years common difficulties the air transportation industry faced were environmental, and safety concerns. For example when finding an appropriate location to build an airport it is crucial to consider the surrounding environment. If a designated location was found airport designers had to take into consideration weather conditions and other hazard constraints such as bird strikes. With the development of turbine engines in the new aeronautical age. Recent bird strikes on a turbine engine showed that it shatters the blades and cause blocking of the airflow rendering the engines inoperable during flights and in some cases causing catastrophic accidents. Another unavoidable environmental concern is the noise and pollutions generated by aircrafts and airport operations. The pollution generated by aircraft engines during takeoffs and landings stir concerns among near living communities. Since airports rely on the revenue stream generated by their associates (airline), and passengers for their very existence , airport operators tried to implement new technologies and infrastructure to minimise any environmental concerns and raise awareness to ensure environmental friendliness, passenger safety and others during flight and airport operations.

Since government deregulation, airlines financial revenues fluctuated as passenger numbers increased. Major airlines introduced a hub and spoke route structure to maximise the number of passenger yield. Airlines that operated a hub and spoke in particular airport connected passengers from bigger cities to smaller cities to attract more consumers and as well operate frequent flights to wide array of destinations. With more and more people wanting to travel around the world their numbers inflated from approximately half a million to 50...
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