The development of null and alternative hypotheses was a difficult task for us at first. I think that people might have had issues understanding exactly what the difference was. I know that I myself had difficulty at first and ended up listening to the archived chats and reaching out to other members of my group for help. After doing all this and conducting some research online, I was finally able to grasp the concept. As the group communicated back and forth it was evident that we all agreed on a decision. The decision was to recommend the alternative hypothesis and support the plan that allowed cash back when the consumer makes an online purchase.

My group decided on supporting the alternative hypothesis. We felt that it was in the best interest of Armed Forces Credit Union to proceed with offering cash back on all purchases made online. We thought this would benefit both the Credit Union and the consumer. By not restricting the incentive to only shoe stores, Armed Forces Credit Union allows the customer freedom to purchase any product and receive cash back. This in turn will increase the use of the credit card being offered by the Credit Union. This will also be an incentive to have customers apply for a credit card if they do not already have one. In the end, this option provided a better opportunity for growth for Armed Forces Credit Union.

In order to explain the purpose of developing null and alternative hypotheses, we must first understand exactly what each of these is. A null hypothesis is

...Why We Don’t “Accept” the Null Hypothesis
by Keith M. Bower, M.S. and James A. Colton, M.S.
Reprinted with permission from the American Society for Quality
When performing statistical hypothesis tests such as a one-sample t-test or the AndersonDarling test for normality, an investigator will either reject or fail to reject the null
hypothesis, based upon sampled data. Frequently, results in Six Sigma projects contain
the verbiage “accept thenull hypothesis,” which implies that the null hypothesis has been
proven true. This article discusses why such a practice is incorrect, and why this issue is
more than a matter of semantics.
Overview of Hypothesis Testing
In a statistical hypothesis test, two hypotheses are evaluated: the null (H0) and the
alternative (H1). The null hypothesis is assumed true until proven otherwise. If the
weight of evidence leads us to believe that the null hypothesis is highly unlikely (based
upon probability theory), then we have a statistical basis upon which we may reject the
null hypothesis.
A common misconception is that statistical hypothesis tests are designed to select the
more likely of two hypotheses. Rather, a test will stay with the null hypothesis until
enough evidence (data) appears to support the alternative.
The amount of evidence required...

...Alyazia Juma Al Muhairi
201013709
Communication research methods (52)
Null Hypothesis
The null hypothesis, is an essential part of any research design, and is always tested, even indirectly. The 'null' often refers to the common view of something, and so the null hypothesis (H0) is a hypothesis in which the researcher tries to disprove, reject or nullify.
Examples of the Null Hypothesis
A researcher may postulate a hypothesis:
H1: Tomato plants exhibit a higher rate of growth when planted in compost rather than in soil.
And a null hypothesis:
H0: Tomato plants do not exhibit a higher rate of growth when planted in compost rather than soil.
It is important to carefully select the wording of the null, and ensure that it is as specific as possible. For example, the researcher might postulate a null hypothesis:
H0: Tomato plants show no difference in growth rates when planted in compost rather than soil.
There is a major flaw with this H0. If the plants actually grow more slowly in compost than in soil, an impasse is reached. H1 is not supported, but neither is H0, because there is a difference in growth rates.
If the null is rejected, with no alternative, the experiment may be invalid. This is the reason why science uses a battery of deductive and inductive processes to ensure that there are no flaws in the hypotheses....

...TYPES OF HYPOTHESES
There are three types of hypotheses which will be explored here:
• Research Hypotheses
Research hypotheses are most nearly like hypotheses defined earlier. A research hypothesis is a statement of what the researcher believes will be the outcome of an experiment or a study. Before studies are undertaken, business researchers often have some idea or theory based on experience or previous work as to how the study will turn out. These ideas, theories, or notions established before an experiment or study is conducted are research hypotheses. Some examples of research hypotheses in business might include:
1. Older workers are more loyal to a company.
2. Companies with more than $1 billion in assets spend a higher percentage of their annual budget on advertising than do companies with less than $1 billion in assets.
3. The implementation of a Six Sigma quality approach in manufacturing will result in greater productivity.
4. The price of scrap metal is a good indicator of the industrial production index six months later.
5. Airline company stock prices are positively correlated with the volume of OPEC oil production.
Virtually all inquisitive, thinking business people have similar research hypotheses concerning relationships, approaches, and techniques in business. Such hypotheses can lead decision makers to new and...

...Take Home Test 2
1. A. Null Hypothesis: There are no relations or associations among the groups’ mean scores.
Alternate Hypothesis: There is a relation or association among the student’s grade point averages and “if they rather prefer to stay at home than go out with friends”.
Correlations |
| Grade Point Average | I would rather stay at home and read than go out with my friends |
Grade Point Average | Pearson Correlation | 1 | .233 |
| Sig. (2-tailed) | | .120 |
| Sum of Squares and Cross-products | 12.667 | 5.002 |
| Covariance | .281 | .111 |
| N | 46 | 46 |
I would rather stay at home and read than go out with my friends | Pearson Correlation | .233 | 1 |
| Sig. (2-tailed) | .120 | |
| Sum of Squares and Cross-products | 5.002 | 36.457 |
| Covariance | .111 | .810 |
| N | 46 | 46 |
Based on the results of our Correlate Bivariate we see that the significance value is more than the p-value of .05 which means that the groups have no relationship between them. The significance value is .120. This means that we are going to accept the Null Hypothesis and reject the Alternate Hypothesis. “I would rather stay at home and read than go out with my friends” has no relationship with the persons GPA.
B. Null Hypothesis: There is no relation or association between people who rarely forget their appointment if they have overdue library books.
Alternative Hypothesis: There...

...CBSE CCE good or Bad, Hate it or Like it?
Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) had introduced grading system and the board has started continuous and comprehensive evaluation (CCE) system from October, under which students would not only be graded in five subjects but they would also be assessed keeping their holistic development in mind.
Many People are happy with the new CCE system, one mother says “The CCE has some good effects too. My son is an average student, but since the CCE takes other factors into consideration, he has got A2s in his report card, which feels so great.” reports TOI
Some Advantages of CCE System in CBSE:
CCE helps in reducing stress of students by -
* Identifying learning progress of students at regular time intervals on small portions of content.
* Employing a variety of remedial measures of teaching based on learning needs and potential of different students.
* Desisting from using negative comments on the learner’s performance.
* Encouraging learning through employment of a variety of teaching aids and techniques.
* Involving learners actively in the learning process.
* Recognizing and encouraging specific abilities of students, who do not excel in academics but perform well in other co-curricular areas.
CCE helps in improving student’s performance by identifying his/her learning difficulties at regular time intervals right from the beginning of the academic session and employing suitable...

...the probability that a packet contains no more than 6 red Scruffies. [2]
(ii) Find the probability that a packet contains exactly 4 red Scruffies. [2]
Because of a fault in the packing machine, one packet in ten now contains 19 Scruffies instead of 18.
(iii) Find the new probability that a randomly selected packet contains exactly 4 red Scruffies. [5]
In order to increase sales, the manufacturer claims to have increased the proportion of red Scruffies. Eric decides to test the manufacturer’s claim by purchasing a packet of Scruffies. (Assume that all packets now contain 18 Scruffies.)
(iv) The packet contains 8 red Scruffies. Does this support the manufacturer’s claim at the 5% significance level? Write down your hypotheses clearly and show your working in full. [6]
2. In a national survey, it was found that 40% of young people failed a standard fitness test.
A random sample of 30 young people is taken.
(i) Explain why, for such random samples, the mean number of those who failed the fitness test is 12. [1]
(ii) Find the probability of the mean number occurring. Explain how you would check whether the mean is also the modal value. No further calculations are necessary. [4]
A local health authority wishes to investigate whether or not the proportion of young people in its area who failed the fitness test is 40%. A random sample of 20 young people contains 12 who failed the test.
(iii) Carry out a...

...hypothesis suggests that treatments will be given.
A simple research hypothesis predicts a relationship between two variables. From your study of variables, it should be clear that the two variables in Example 1 are (1) gender and (2) reading comprehension. The hypothesis states that reading comprehension is related to gender.
Example 2 is a hypothesis for an experimental study.
Example 2
It is hypothesized that children who arc shown a video with mild violence will be more aggressive on the playground than those who are shown a similar video without the violence.
In Example 2, the independent variable is violence (mild vs. none), and the dependent variable is aggressiveness on the playground.
The hypotheses in Examples 1 and 2 are examples of directional hypotheses. In a directional hypothesis, we predict which group will be higher or have more of something.
Sometimes we have a nondirectional hypothesis. Consider Example 3.
Example 3
It is hypothesized that the child-rearing practices of Tribe A are different from those of Tribe B.
The author of Example 3 is saying that there will be a difference but does not predict the direction of the difference. This is perfectly acceptable when there is no basis for making an educated guess.
Instead of a nondirectional hypothesis, we might state a research purpose. Example 4 shows a research purpose that corresponds to the nondirectional hypothesis in Example 3.
Example 4...

...Null
Joey O’Leary, an Irish boy, lived in a very small town with his
mother, father and two younger sisters. He was born many years ago,
even before the invention of the computer, maybe as much as twenty
years ago.
Joey’s father was a school teacher and his mother, most of the time
was a homemaker, though she did sell cosmetics from their home, to
earn a little extra money.
School was starting in just a few days, and it was customary for the
O’Leary children to get a new set of clothing each year, so they would
look well dressed on the first day of school.
Joey’s little town had no clothing store, no bank, no restaurant, or
even a swimming pool. The only store in the village was a small
grocery store, a post office, a gas station and a barber shop.
It was Saturday, the last free weekend of the summer, and mother
said that it was the dreaded day of school shopping. Beth and Carole,
the two younger sisters were up early, happy as a couple of larks, as
they giggled and chattered over breakfast, anticipating the “day of
glory and excitement” in the big city mall.
Joey, on the other hand, was not that enthusiastic. He wanted to
stay home and ride his bicycle, throw rocks in the pond, or do
anything but go shopping. He finally agreed to go, however, after his
father gave him a talking to. It seemed for ever, but thirty minutes
later, mom, Carole, Beth and Joey were in the big town, entering the
huge shopping...

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