Normal Growth and Development

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Growth and Development
Shannon Ogbeni
Kaplan College

Growth and Development
The process of growth and development is a random manner but is gradual and regular. There is a particular pattern of development for instance; development proceeds from head to toe and from the midline to the periphery (outside boundary or surface of something). Different body parts grow at a different rate, all body parts cannot grow at the same time. Growth is a continuous and gradual process, all body parts continue to grow from infancy to late childhood. Although the patterns for growth are sequential the rate of growth is not uniform but more rapidly in early years and tends to slows down as we are in our later stages. Theorist has come up with different levels of developmental growths, some similarities and some differences. Two in particular are Sigmund Feud and Erik Erikson. According to Sigmund Feud, he focused on psycho-sexual theory in five stages: oral stage (0-1yr.), anal stage (1-3yr.), phallic (3-5/6yr.), latency (5-6yr.), and genital (puberty-adult). Erik Erikson focused on the psychosocial theory in eight stages: trust vs. mistrust (birth-1yr.), autonomy vs. shame/ doubt (2-3yr.), initiative vs. guilt (3-5yr.), industry vs. inferiority (6-12yr.), identity vs. role confusion (13-18yr.), intimacy vs. isolation (young adult 18-40yr.), generativity vs. stagnation (middle adult 40-65yr.), integrity vs. despair (grow older adults 65 and over). They both share some similarities in the first four stages. The first stage begins from birth to 1yr. The second stage is around one to three years. Third stage is three to about 5-6yr. Fourth stage is from 6yr to the start of puberty. They both agree that bad experiences in early childhood can negatively effect and cause an unhealthy progress in later stages.
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