1. Explain the sequence and rate of each aspect of development from birth – 19 years.
Aspects of a child’s and young people’s development include… * Physical development – Gross motor skills (using muscles such as arms and legs), Fine motor skills (Use of muscles such as hands, fingers and toes). * Social, Emotional and Behavioral development – This is the development of relationships, a child’s identity and self-image and Knowledge of the world. * Communication – Communicating with others.
* Intellectual/Cognitive – Learning the skills of understanding. * Moral - knowing their right and wrong behavior.
Gross motor skills.
* 1 month - 2 Years - At one month Babies enjoy kicking their legs and waving their arms around, they can turn from their side to their back and will lift their head briefly from the prone position. When two – three months Babies can, keep their head in central position when lying and can now lift both their head and their chest in the prone position. By six months Babies can, up with support with a straight back and when sitting they do so with a straight back. Can kick vertically with their legs and can reach out to grasp toys with hands. At nine months babies can sit up on their own for at least 15 minutes and can maintain a sitting position with a straight back. 12 – 15 months Babies can rise to sitting position from lying down on their own and can rise to standing position without help from people or furniture can also stand alone for a few moments. At 13 months Babies at this age normally can walk by this age to tend to fall over frequently and quickly. By 15 months babies can walk alone and crawl upstairs safely and may come downstairs backwards. Children aged 18 months+ can walk steadily and stop safety without sitting down suddenly. Can squat to pick up or move a toy, can climb up and downstairs if their hand is on the rail for support. * 2 – 5 years - Children aged 2 Years can run safely avoiding obstacles. Can throw balls but cannot yet catch one. Can now walk up and down stairs by putting both feet on the steps. By three years – Children can, ride a tricycle using foot pedals, can balance on one foot, Can now go up the stairs one foot at a time but when going downstairs still with two feet on the step, and can kick a ball with force. 4 years – Children have developed a good sense of balance and may be able to walk straightly along a line and stand run and tiptoe. When at 5 years - children show a good co-ordination and can play ball games and dance to music. Use a variety of different play equipment including slides, swings and climbing frames.
* 5 – 7 Years - Children are gaining in strength, they can jump of apparatus at school with confidence and can run and jump and kick a football up high, can now ride a 2 wheel bike possibly without stabilizers. At 7 years, children can hop on either leg and can walk along a thin line with their arms outstretched for balance. Do activities such as swimming, skating, gymnastics and martial arts. * 8 – 12 years - Children between 8 – 9 years enjoy activities such as football, tennis or any other games that are energetic; they also are starting to get competitive when playing. Children aged 10 – 11 years can now be starting to differ in physical maturity as girls experience puberty earlier, and are starting have body proportions that are becoming similar to adults. * 12 – 16 years - Many things will happen to a child's body at this time of their life. Girls will start their period and become sexually mature, their hips will get wider and their breasts will start to develop. They will also develop hair on their bikini line and under their arms, Boys will notice that their penis enlarges, they will get wet dreams, will become more muscly and will get hair on their face, chest, underarms and round by the penis area. Girls will also be starting their periods. * 16 – 19 years -
Fine motor skills....
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